1962 india-china war

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The Rediff Special/Brigadier (retd) Chitranjan Sawant, VSM
‘Ill-armed, Ill-clad, Ill-trained…’

Brigadier (retd) Chitranjan Sawant, VSM In the summer of 1996, more than 35 years after the 1962 war with China, I had an opportunity to stand on the Chinese side of the Dhola ridge and see our own battleground in NEFA [the North East Frontier Agency, now Arunachal Pradesh].

This was the same Dhola ridge from where the People’s Liberation Army of China had attacked the Indian forward positions and rolled down Sela-Bomdilla till the foothills near Tezpur on October 20, 1962.

I was visiting Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, as an independent producer of TV documentaries on Tibet. Having seen NEFA from the Indian side, I asked my hosts if I could have a view of the area from the Chinese side.

There was stunned silence in the banquet hall where the Chinese and Tibetan administrators had hosted a dinner for me. Finally, the Tibetan head of administration, on a cue from his Chinese adviser, said: “Brigadier, you may see, but not shoot.” I accepted his suggestion, and next morning Chinese army Mitsubishi Pajeros took me and the crew to the area.

Tough terrain indeed. But not tougher than the one on our side, was my silent verdict after a mental comparison. The altitude was high without causing respiratory complications because of thick foliage. And exactly like on our side, local cowherds tended to their flock unawed by our presence.

The Chinese military intelligence officer (so I presumed) who doubled as a liaison officer appreciated my desire to take a close look at the imaginary international border and touch the Indian soil with reverence. “Sying-sying,” he said in Chinese mandarin, indicating his okay, and I lost no time in taking a military look at the massive Dhola ridge from where officers and men of the People’s Liberation Army descended on the Indian territory using ropes, bypassing our formidable infantry positions and attacking the nerve centre, headquarters of the 7 Infantry Brigade.

The brigade commander, Brig John Dalvi, was literally caught with his pants down. The PLA had taken its first VIP red-tab prisoner of war.

Many more other ranks (junior commissioned officers and jawans) were to fall into their net later. It was indeed a disgraceful show and serving subalterns and captains like me felt let down by those who mattered in the military and civilian set-up.

On the ground hallowed by selfless sacrifice made beyond the call of duty by many of my brothers-in-arms, I stood in silence for more than the customary two minutes. Many images flashed across my mind as I recalled the dramatis personae, both the living and the dead. They seemed to communicate moments of agony and ecstasy depending on courage or cowardice. There were examples galore of both.

Sipahi (later Naik and in present folklore Captain) Jaswant Singh of the 4th battalion of the Garhwal Rifles manned a post with his light machine-gun on a road bend near Sela top. In that bitter snowfall, when the Chinese attacked his post, wave after wave, he stood his ground with grit and determination. His fellow soldiers fell fighting. Outgunned and outnumbered, he still kept the enemy at bay until he finally succumbed to his injuries.

His body was never found, but his memory remains fresh in folklore. Every evening, successive units at the post prepare a bed for him and food is served for his soul, and the local hill population describe him as ‘Captain sahib’. I am told that even now his paltan (battalion) refuses to suffix ‘the late’ to his name.

Then there was Captain (now a retired colonel) S N Tandon, who won a Vir Chakra for gallantry. He and I were gentlemen cadets in the Naushera company of the Indian Military Academy in 1959. He confided in me in the late 1960s that when the soldiers of the PLA captured him as well as his commanding officer, the latter started crying, moaning that he would never be able to meet his wife and children in this life. Tandon being a bachelor had no such emotional outburst.

The Chinese commissars, Tandon told me later, devoted a lot of time and energy to brainwashing Indian officers and men in the PoW camps. But this did not cut much ice because of family loyalties, and most of them remained steadfast and committed to the Indian values of life.

My reverie was broken by my film crew, who pointed out that it was getting late and time to return to base.

Where did you face us in 1962, asked Mr Qiao, one of the Chinese officials, in a light-hearted manner. “Here, there, and everywhere,” I replied, and we all laughed it away.

Tomorrow would be another day, I said to myself, and tried to sleep.

But sleep eluded me that night. The 1962 debacle of our army kept haunting me. Jawaharlal Nehru’s words that China had stabbed India in the back by launching a dastardly attack crisscrossed my mind many a time. Now, four decades after the bitter war, I was their guest.

The Chinese always kept emphasizing that they were not the aggressors. Chou En-lai, the then Chinese prime minister, and other Chinese decision-makers had taken Nehru’s off-the-cuff statement made in Madras on October 12, 1962, that he had “ordered the Indian Army to throw the Chinese out” very seriously.

The PLA in Tibet, where they were entrenched since 1950, mobilized to launch a pre-emptive attack on NEFA.

In an academic discussion with my Chinese hosts, I asked them: “Didn’t you fire the first shot?” The Chinese hosts replied that after Nehru’s provocative statement amounting to a declaration of war, a self-respecting nation like China could not have waited to be attacked.

I recall that the Americans were very sympathetic to the Indian Army’s debacle in NEFA and were convinced that China was the aggressor. If memory serves me right, the Americans used the term ‘Himalayan Pearl Harbour’ to describe our discomfiture as akin to their own.

The other view was that we Indians got what we had asked for. The author of India’s China war, Neville Maxwell, exonerated the Chinese and said blaming them was ‘a soothing fantasy’ for the Indians.

When I look back over these 40 years of my own experience in the Indian Army as a student of military history, I feel that the last word on the subject has not been said. Perhaps a latter-day historian with an unbiased mind and access to declassified war diaries may arrive at this image-shattering deduction: the unpronounced rivalry between Nehru and Chou En-lai to play a dominant role in Asia was the root cause of the military conflict in 1962.

Of course, undefined and undemarcated borders in the high Himalayas were a British legacy that the independent Indian government carried forward. The British imperial military power could sustain the theory of undefined borders and make inroads into Tibet. But independent India, without the backing of a mighty military machine, found the vagueness of borders a heavy burden, which was difficult to carry and not easy to shake off.

The Chinese were gaining strength day by day after October 1, 1949, when New China was born. Consequently, when the PLA moved into almost independent Tibet in 1950, the Indian foreign policy makers did not even whimper, let alone think of an intervention. The remnants of the Indian mission and post office in Lhasa were wound up post-haste.

The Indian Tri-colour was never to flutter in the Lhasa breeze again.

Reverting to the military operations in NEFA, we find that the 4th Indian military division degenerated into a complete rout without giving a sustained battle to the intruding Chinese. When the PLA launched its first wave of attacks on October 20, 1962, some Indian Army units in Walong on the far eastern side did offer determined resistance. But on the Dhola-Sela-Bomdilla axis it was a complete rout.

In all fairness to the Chinese, it must be mentioned that they had offered a ceasefire and a negotiated withdrawal from Indian territory when they met stiff resistance in the Walong sector. But the Indian Army and political leadership — wishing “to throw the Chinese out” — found that a humiliating proposition. But throwing the Chinese out remained wishful thinking.

On November 15, 1962, some Indian Army units launched a counter attack and gained limited success. There was a short thaw in the battle. Then the PLA inducted more men and new guns to renew a determined onslaught, which totally routed the Indian side. The magnitude of their attack had to be seen to be believed.

Rumours in the Indian rank and file aided the Chinese more than their own military tactics. A mere whisper of Chinese soldiers being seen in the vicinity would send rank and file running for cover where none was available. To our eternal shame, the commanding general and his colonels, leave alone the jawans, deserted their posts and gave the Chinese army a free run up to the foothills near the town of Tezpur. Disabled jawans who had lost their limbs in snow and literally walked into Chinese PoW camps cursed themselves and their officers for the sad state.

But military strategists all over the world appreciated that the Indian jawans even while retreating from battle, never abandoned their rifles. An unprepared army, ill-armed, ill-clad, and ill-trained for mountain warfare, had been ordered to give battle to seasoned PLA officers and men who had more than a decade’s experience of mountain warfare in Tibet.

The majority of the Indian soldiers did not have suitable winter clothing and proper footwear for snowbound battlefields. Ammunition was in short supply because quite a few ponies carried commodes for officers instead of ammunition for soldiers. The command and control from corps headquarters downwards was non-functional.

Lieutenant General B M Kaul, commanding general of the newly raised 4 Corps at Tezpur, had never commanded an active fighting outfit notwithstanding his Sandhurst training. Instead of planning military strategy at Tezpur or in forward areas, he wasted crucial days in Delhi nursing a sore throat.

While the military situation of the Indian Army was in such a mess, the Chinese once again caught us by surprise by declaring a unilateral ceasefire as they had no visible Indian units to fight. In one stroke they scored a military-cum-diplomatic victory.

I shall be failing in my duty, however, if I do not pay tribute to the gallantry of those who fought till the last round and last breath. Among them stands tall Brigadier Hoshiar Singh, commander of the Sela Brigade, who gave a bloody nose to the Chinese even after being cut off from his division headquarters at Bomdilla. He made the supreme sacrifice in action.

Subedar Joginder Singh too went beyond the call of duty, inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy and saving the lives of his men. The nation honoured him with the Param Vir Chakra, the country’s highest gallantry award in war, posthumously.

They who died for the country still live in their countrymen’s memory. We salute our martyrs, cherish their memories, and encourage our young ones to emulate them.

Brigadier (retd) Chitranjan Sawant is a Sinologist and a qualified interpreter of Mandarin. He was deputed by the Government of India to study the Chinese language and affairs in California after the 1962 Sino-Indian war, when he was posted in the Ladakh sector. He has visited China and Tibet thrice and produced television documentaries.

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MAHARISHI DAYANAND ON NATIONAL DEFENCE

AUM

VEDIC THOUGHTS

AUM

MAHARSHI DAYANAND ON NATIONAL DEFENCE
By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant, VSM

Maharshi Swami Dayanand Saraswati, who brought in a religious renaissance in the 19th century India, in his principal work Satyarth Prakash (Light of Truth) has dwelt at length on the question of national defence in the sixth chapter. The sixth chapter is basically about good governance and, of course, national defence is an integral part of good governance. The bottom line of the Maharshi’s writings on defence is: National defence is a national affair which should be attended to on a day to day basis. In other words the defence officials as well as strategists have to evolve a standard operating procedure by which the threat perception is fool proof and indeed comes in motion suo motu well before the threat develops to a menacing degree.
A student of Indian military history is well aware of the fact that right from the medieval period to the post independence period the enemy has by and large caught us napping. Our intelligence agencies rarely lived up to their mandate and the national security councils, if and when they were functional, failed to appreciate the developing threat. Consequently the enemy always had gained the upper hand and brought us to battle on grounds of his own choosing. Therefore, the results were disastrous. The obvious results need not be overemphasized as they might cause morale of common man to sag.
Deriving profusely from the Manusmriti and quoting its original slokas in Sanskrit, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati brings out a very important factor in national defence and it is strength of the common man. As a matter of fact, both in Europe and Asia, not touching the new world at all, the general emphasis of the royalty or the oligarchy was placed on strengthening the armed forces and their arsenals. The common man was by and large a neglected lot. With the result many a time the fate of many a kingdom was decided by the outcome of a single battle where the king lost his head and eventually his kingdom. Common citizens were least concerned about the outcome of these battles and continued with their normal occupation. No doubt they themselves were the worst sufferers because of this acute apathy to outcome of battle. Nonetheless, no one paid attention to this factor before the advent of Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati.
The Maharshi wrote in his epoch making book, Satyarth Prakash or Light of the Truth, “If the citizens of a state are weak, their weakness in turn weakens the rulers, the state itself and eventually causes the entire society to perish.’’ History bears witness to this. Dayanand Saraswati was a sanyasi and as a sanyasi had received little training in defence matters. Yet he paid attention to this aspect of statecraft and drew from his deep meditations to contribute his original thought to the concept of defence and proper threat perception at the proper time. The Maharshi also emphasized a crucial aspect of training of defence planners by saying that they must develop equanimity of mind under all circumstances. A complete absence of anger under stress is absolutely essential for making decisions which affect the future of the nation. Decisions taken in haste or in anger bring the decision maker and his followers to a ruin. An example is made out of a lion who rushes into a hail of bullets in anger and thus brings his life to an end. On the other hand a sagacious commander of men and women appreciates the situation in a cool and calculated manner.If the enemy is overwhelmingly superior, wisdom lies in withdrawing from the place of action until the time is ripe to annihilate the enemy forces.
Chhatrapati Shivaji, who founded the Hindavi Swaraj and built it up from the scratch, had mastered the art of perceiving the threat and dealing with the enemy from a position of strength. Apparently he had drawn heavily from the wisdom of Manusmriti in this aspect. With a view to gaining the advantage of defence in depth he sowed the seeds of Maratha empire both on the west coast and the east coast of peninsular India. His sons Sambhaji and Rajaram reaped the harvest at a later date when pressed hard by the Mughal emperor of Delhi. Not confronting the enemy when we are weak has been given due display by Swami Dayanand too. He says that when the circumstances are adverse, we should resort to a `tactical retreat’ and disappear from the scene of confrontation with the speed of a hare or a Sasa (that is the word used by the Maharishi).
On gaining sufficient strength a counter attack may be mounted with the prowess and speed of a tiger. The Swami emphasizes the element of thorough preparation well in advance before giving a battle to the enemy. The strategists should strive day after day to build up the defence machinery and the logistics required for it. By quoting the example of the tiger he has taken into account even the occasional failures in achieving the aim. Wildlife observers say that on an average a tiger makes attempts to catch his prey as many as 18 times before making a kill. The underlying idea is to make ceaseless effort. The Sanskrit couplet in this context goes thus:
Udyamen hi sidhyanti karyani, na manorathaih
Na hi suptasya sinhasya pravishanti mukhe mrigah.
It is only through ceaseless efforts that one is able to achieve one’s aim and the aim is never achieved by wishful thinking. The perfect example is that of a tiger who never gets his feed while lazying in his den but has to make a kill.
Dharm or a conduct of righteousness in battle and out of battle has been dwelt at length by the Maharshi in his book referred to before. He says: “Remember your dharm all the time and never fight shy of joining the battle against your enemy. Make use of your intellect in battle in order to achieve victory in the shortest possible time.’’ Dwelling on the same point and drawing once again from the Manusmriti the Swami advises soldiers to have strength of character. Character will hold a soldier in good stead in battle under adverse circumstances. The edifice of determination is built on the foundation of character and it is the dharm which cements your resolve to win. Therefore, fight for your cause with all your heart and never let your resolve to win be weakened. Be a Braveheart always and everytime.
Among many traits of a soldier of good character is a resolve not to go in for loot (plunder) of men and material belonging to the beaten enemy. The Maharshi specifically mentions that the women and children of the defeated enemy should be taken care of and never viewed with a lustrous eye. Perhaps he was dwelling on psychology in war. When the beaten enemy finds its women have been ravished and cultural wealth is being plundered, he resolves to give a last ditch battle again, instead of surrendering. Naturally it results in more bloodshed in a prolonged war. Good grace avoids unnecessary bloodshed. Moreover soldiers who have an eye for women are susceptible to be caught in a trap laid by the enemies’ intelligence department. There are examples galore how many a brilliant officer had his career cut short because he fell for the beauty in a beastly manner. The Satyarth Prakash advises caution on the part of individuals and vigilance on the part of higher echelons of command.
It is a pleasant surprise that the Rishivar in his monumental work, RIGVEDADI BHASHYA BHUMIKA has paid due attention to defence matters.It is well known to straegists of eminence as well as a greenhorn going into battle that Speed is of essence in achieving a victory. Swami Dayanand Saraswati has underlined this major point in the chapter on the construction and utilization of ships and aircraft in war. These means of transport in the air, on ground and at sea will lend speed to operations. The Rishi has added a new dimension to it, SPACE or antariksha. This dimension was unknown to captains of war even in Europe. Dayanand Saraswati takes no credit for it when he says that he is only narrating what the VEDAS already have in their mantras. He also says that a thorough preparation on these counts have to precede a desire for victory. In the present context it is recommended that one must read the chapter, Ath nau Vimanadi Vidya Vishayas Sankshepatah.
Let us put into practice the logical Vedic teachings of Maharishi Swami Dayanand Saraswati on matters military relating to Defence. A nation should always remain prepared for war. The policy makers should know who the prospective enemy is or can be. It is a well known fact that in international relations there are no permanent friends and no permanent enemies. There are only permanent national interests that guide the formation of policies both in peace and war. Therefore, the bottom line once again is pay attention to national defence on a day to day basis, remain prepared for war and talk of peace from a position of strength.

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CORONATION OF CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ

CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ’S CORONATION IN JUNE 1674
• भारत
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SHIVAJI’S CORONATION LAUDATORY LANDMARK
By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born, lived, fought and won battles against religious and social oppression in the 17th century Bharat or India. He was a shining star in the Indian firmament and is renowned as a champion of the downtrodden and depressed masses. He was and continues to be an icon for the classes and masses alike and is seen as a rallying point for peasants oppressed by foreign rulers, Pathans and Moghuls alike. Sexually exploited women found in Shivaji Raje a protector, a benefactor and flocked to his Hindavi Swaraj to find solace and feel liberated under his saffron flag.
RISE AND RISE OF A PATRIOT
The teenager Shiva had seen the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda in the Deccan as agents of aggression who mercilessly sucked the blood of the commoners and never spared their women the ignominy of rape, loot and plunder. The morale of the common man was in his boots. He and his family were down in dumps and did not know how to hold their heads high and live a life of human dignity. Shivaji chose to champion the cause of the common man against oppression of rulers of foreign origin and he used the might of his sword, Bhavani, to exterminate the oppressors who rode high horses and commanded the superior strength of the state of Bijapur. Shivaji showed his qualities of leadership and galvanized the peasants, workers, artisans, clerics and what have you into an army of patriots out to measure swords with cruel chieftains like Afzal Khan and others of his ilk. The morale of Shivaji’s ragtag army was sky high. Never mind the home made weaponry pitted against big guns of the Sultan of Bijapur. Never mind the high horses of the State against whom the hill ponies of peasant soldiers were determined to fight. It was love of Swadesh, love of the oppressed kith and kin, it was the fire raging in their hearts and minds exhorting them to restore the honour of their women and motherland that gave them the moral armour to defend against the heavy armaments of the oppressive state.
The Patriotism of a high order fired their imagination to devise new strategy to defeat the seemingly superior enemy who was morally weak. A life of ease and comfort, debauchery of the lowest order had weakened the moral fibre of the kings and captains of foreign origin. They were just waiting to be felled by a man of high moral calibre fired with a sense of deep patriotism like Shivaji. The man of the masses just did that and drove the last nail into their coffins.
AFZAL KHAN BITES DUST
The tall, hefty and well built man who commanded a reputation of being invincible in combat named Afzal Khan took upon himself to tame Shivaji, son of Shahaji, another warrior-general of the Bijapur durbar who had told the Sultan that he had no control on the military exploits and victories of his son, Shivaji. Afzal was a much married man and had a harem of countless concubines. A superstitious man that he was, he did crystal gazing and had a premonition that he would not return alive after a confrontation with the rising star of the house of Bhosles. He, therefore, killed all his wives and concubines to prevent them falling a prey to the lust of other Pathan nobles of the Bijapur durbar. It showed that his morale was sinking.
A wily and crafty man that he was, Afzal Khan contrived to kill Shivaji while embracing him, son of a fellow noble man. At the pre-determined place on a no man’s land on the boundary of the new State of Shivaji and the Bijapur durbar, the two men met with just two aides each. Their armies were left far behind. The tall Khan was sarcastic bordering abusive from the word go. He asked Shivaji to come close to him for a deep hug. On the pretext of embracing Shivaji, a short statured man, Khan tried to strangle him with all the force at his command. Shivaji later told his Guru, Samarth Guru Ramdas, that for a few moments there was darkness in his eyes and he was about to faint owing to strangulation attempt of Khan but he suddenly gained strength on remembering Maa Bhavani and collected his wits to counterattack. Shivaji used his iron claws and ploughed through the abdomen of Khan. As his intestines were badly damaged, his iron fist hold on Shivaji’s neck loosened and weakened by profuse bleeding Khan fell down. His men put him into a palanquin and tried to flee. Shivaji’s Maratha captains who were there as armed escorts fell on the Khan’s aides, beheaded them and eventually beheaded Afzal Khan too.
The Maratha guns fired salvos to indicate that the battle has been joined and it is time to attack Khan’s army. On seeing a headless dead khan, his army ran helter skelter and the Maratha army of Shivaji carried the day. They seized so much munitions of war, war horses and precious stones, not counting gold and silver from the Bijapur camp that it was enough to finance many a campaign of Shivaji against Bijapur in the coming years. However, no general of the Bijapur army was prepared to lead a campaign against Shivaji after learning what happened to old war veteran Afzal Khan.
The news of Shivaji humbling Afzal Khan and despatching him to the next world enhanced Shivaji’s military reputation and morale of his Maratha army was sky high. The Bijapur army sued for peace and recognised Shivaji as a ruler of the territory under his military control.
THE MUGHULS STEP IN
Shivaji’s military victories in the Deccan made the Mughals sit back and take stock of the situation afresh. It was decided by Aurangzeb, the sitting king who had imprisoned his father Shah Jehan and killed brothers like Dara Shikoh to ascend the throne of Delhi, to despatch a large composite army under the command of his maternal uncle, Shaista Khan to subdue the Marathas.
The Mughals had initial success and the Marathas drew them into the heartland before launching a counter-attack. Shaista Khan encamped in Pune and chose to live in the Lal Mahal that originally belonged to Shivaji. The latter decided to launch a daring attack and beard the Mughal lion in his own den.
One fine evening a small chosen army of the Marathas under the command of Shivaji himself gained an entry into Pune as the Deccan sepoys meant to replace the Mughals on night duty. As the night fell, Shivaji did the daring act of attacking Lal Mahal where Shaista Khan was living with his Begums. Shivaji entered their bedroom but in the commotion Shaista Khan woke up and tried to flee through the window. His Begum put out the light. Shivaji still attacked Shaista Khan and cut all his fingers with which he was holding the window sill. Having driven the point home, the Marathas returned to their base unhindered and without any loss of life. The Mughal emperor could not bear this ignominy and recalled Shaista Khan to Delhi for rest and recuperation.
SAWAI JAI SINGH MADE A TREATY
Aurangzeb put into practice the policy of divide and rule the Hindu population of Hindustan. He deputed his relative by marriage the ruler of Jaipur, Raja Sawai Jai Singh to tame the lion of the Deccan. Shivaji wrote a poignant letter to Jai Singh imploring him not to shed the Hindu blood for a Muslim ruler. Had Jai Singh come on his own as a Hindu King, Shivaji would not have opposed him in battle but met him, received him as a brother but now that he was an employee of a foreign invader, Shivaji had no option but to oppose him on the battle field. Shivaji knew that it would be an exercise in futility to oppose a battle-tested general like Jai Singh and,therefore, sued for peace. Raja Jai Singh requested Shivaji to go to Agra and meet the Mughal emperor and no harm would be done to him as a Rajput ruler gives his word of honour to protect him in Agra. His son, Ram Singh would keep Shivaji and his son, Sambhaji out of harm’s way.
However, wily Aurangzeb had different designs to do the short shrift of the Maratha King. Ram Singh learnt of the devilish design of Aurangzeb and advised Shivaji to flee from the palace like prison and return to the Deccan. It is a recorded history that both Shivaji and Sambhaji succeeded in coming out of the Mughal trap and restablished his sway on the territories won by Raja Jai Singh who was later poisoned by Aurangzeb’s men. How ungrateful was Aurangzeb, that is not difficult to fathom.
CORONATION THE GRAND FINALE
Shivaji had had a bad patch in life. He was surrounded by the enemies on all sides. On his return from the Mughal incarceration, his authority as a supreme ruler and unchallenged monarch required to be re- established. Notwithstanding challenges thrown by the Mughals and Pathans , Shivaji planned to hold his coronation ceremony in a grand manner. He would be the first Hindu king after the loss of the mighty Vijainagar empire to be addressed as a crowned king. The Morale of his army and the people at large would touch the sky again. Mata Jijabai, the mentor and philosopher guide of her son, Shivaji too wished to see him a crowned king. The coronation would be a psychological victory for the Hindu King of the Hindavi Swaraj where no permission would be asked for from the Delhi throne. Indeed it was a master stroke of political and diplomatic strategy of Shivaji.
The Coronation ceremony itself was a grand spectacle. On the Trayodashi, Shukla Paksh of Jyeshtha,Vikrami 1731 samvat was chosen by the pundits as the auspicious day of coronation. The great Vedic Pundit, Gaga Bhatt was invited from Varanasi to preside over the Vedic Coronation ceremony and he did a brilliant job of it. His presence as the presiding purohit of the Rajayabhishek and his declaration of the great Maratha ruler as “KSHATTRIYA KULWANT SIMHSANADHISHWAR CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ” PUT THE SEAL OF AUTHORITY ON THE CORONATION.
A large number of men and women, both Indian and foreigner, had assembled at Fort Raigad, the capital of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s Hindavi Swaraj. They all went ecstatic with joy when the Ved mantras were recited by the group of purohits under mahapundit Gaga Bhatt. Water brought from seven pious rivers of Bharat, indicating unity of the country from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Kamrup to Kutch,mingled with water brought from the seven seas was sprinkled on the anointment ceremony of the Chhatrapati. An umbrella, crimson and gold, was held above the head of the ruler to be crowned, and the title of Chhatrapati was conferred on him by the High Priest. The sea water brought and sprinkled on the Chhatrapati was a symbol of his dream come true when Shivaji became the first king of India to raise a full- fledged Navy under Admiral Angre.
As the High Priest solemnly anointed the Chhatrapati, in the midst of recitation of Ved mantras, singing of devotional songs and sound of traditional music, Guns boomed from all the forts located in the Hindavi Swaraj simultaneously. The Coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj became a laudatory landmark in the annals of India. The Hindus now held their heads high and walked erect as they lived and worked under the protective umbrella of a crowned king, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj who had vowed to protect and defend the Hindu Dharma till his last breath. He lived up to the high ideals and never let down his people, the common man for whose defence and betterment he had drawn the sword out of the sheath. Shivaji had not only brought a sense of unity and solidarity among his people but always protected the women and never allowed anyone to play with the honour of women folk. Thus the common man was well protected. From this security had flown prosperity.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was indeed greatest of the great.
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RENAISSANCE RISHI

RENAISSANCE RISHI – INSPIRING STORY OF MAHARISHI DAYANAND SARASWATI

Blog by Chitranjan Sawant

THE RENAISSANCE RISHI
By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
Indeed it was a dark age in India. Speaking of the political scene, one may say that the ruler and the ruled were both down and almost out. Militarily speaking, the morale of captains and commoners was down in the dumps. Speaking of Science, research was at a standstill. Religion was confined to the closets and common man relied on rituals that were empty and provided

little support emotionally when a man or a woman needed it most. Pundit, padre and mullah had become parasites that lived off others and did little
to repay to the social set up from where they received sustenance. Dharma was an unknown phenomenon and religion was just a bye word for tantra or
hocus-pocus entwined in stratagem to help thugs. Women and the have-not sections of the society were exploited out and out and no leader or
administrator worth the name gave a damn to take a look at the exploited masses, what to say of ameliorating their religious and social penury. The
situation was grave. There was no light at the end of the tunnel.
In that gloomy scenario appeared a man of sterling worth in the region of Kathiawad, India.

He gave a clarion call “Go back to the Vedas “. His thrust line was this: Human beings should lead their lives happily as per the tenets of the Vedas that were revealed by the Almighty right at the beginning of the human Creation, through the Rishis or saints of high caliber, and eventually attain Emancipation or Moksha from the bondage of birth, death and rebirth. Vedas are for all and sundry, irrespective of caste creed, colour or sex of the person. All human beings have a right to read and meditate on the mantra. This was a Religious Renaissance par excellence that brought immense joy to men and women all over the world. The Renaissance Rishi who heralded this freedom of faith was known as Swami Dayanand Saraswati, a disciple of a great grammarian and Vedic scholar named Swami Virjanand Saraswati.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born in a village, Tankara in Rajkot district of Kathiawar, now Saurashtra, India in 1824.His father, Karsanji Tewari, a state revenue official, named his son – Moolshankar. The young precocious boy went through a normal system of learning Sanskrit and religious text. At a young age, he memorized the text of the Yajurveda and impressed his teachers and class fellows with his extra-ordinary memory. Indeed a bright future was in the offing. life was ambling by along the Demi River that lay meandering on the periphery of the village. On its banks stood a small Shiva temple where young Moolshankar’s folks assembled in strength on the Maha-Shivratri to worship the Lord. An incident in the temple was the turning point in Moolshankar’s life, nay in the life and times of the then India, and later the world.
The thirteen-year old boy, Moolshankar was a devoted Shaivite in the making when history took a turn. A small rat ascended the Shivlinga and started eating all edible offerings that had been made earlier in the evening. Rat’s friends followed suit. Devotees were in deep slumber at that late hour of the night. Only young Moolshankar, fired by an ardent desire to have a darshan (see face to face) of Lord Shiva had kept awake. On seeing the Shivlinga being desecrated by the lowly mice and the idol haplessly bearing this insult, Moolshankar had a nagging doubt that the idol could never be the Almighty Himself. He woke up his father but was chided for his untimely and irrelevant inquisitiveness. He returned to his house from the temple where his mother happily gave him a sumptuous meal to break his day-long fast. Young Moolshankar had made up his mind to go in quest of the real god, the Almighty that the Vedas had talked about and the Omnipresent One who could never be bound by a form or an image. It was the beginning of the Renaissance of religion in India. The foundations of a great mental and spiritual movement, later known as the Arya Samaj, had indeed been laid. Of course, the formal formation had to wait till 1875.
The great Quest had begun. Meeting many mahatmas, after the young lad left his parental home at age 22 when pressed to get married and abandon the spiritual quest and imbibing spiritual knowledge, Moolshankar became Shuddh Chaitanya. In this relentless quest of the Almighty, he was even cheated at times by false god men but he never abandoned the great quest. Moving from place to place and meeting mahatmas, the young explorer chose to enter the fourth ashram of the varnashram dharma, that is, Sanyas. Swami Poornanand Saraswati, a great Vedic scholar, initiated him into the Sanyas Ashram. Thus was born an ascetic, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, who turned into a great Vedic scholar, a writer of Ved Bhashya (Vedic explanations of mantras) and many treatises like the Satyarth Prakash, Rigvedadi Bhashya Bhumika and Sanskar Vidhi. He became a preacher of the true Vedic Dharma himself and traveled far and wide in India. The great Awakening of masses, the rank and file of Indians in slumber, had begun. His religious discourses were well attended by captains and commoners alike.
We may recall some of the anecdotes of his life that go to show that he placed great reliance on the social unity of the masses, besides uniting them in one Vedic Dharma, to make the nation strong. Swami Dayanand Saraswati advised all Arya Samajes to run their show in a democratic manner. On Saturday, April 10, 1875 when the first Arya Samaj was founded at Kakarwadi, Mumbai, India, the great Swami was requested by the congregation to assume Presidentship of the organization but he declined and chose to be “just a simple member”. He had great faith in local talent taking over the reigns and not depending on an individual, howsoever great the individual might be. Whenever, the members of the newly founded Arya Samaj elsewhere had indulged in mutual recrimination and indulged in senseless accusation and became a prey to dissensions, the Swami advised them to sort out the religious and social problems themselves instead of requesting him to come to the scene or rushing to courts of law en block. He was dead against entering into legal litigation to solve problems of social nature. He made a mention of it in black and white in his WILL twice, first at Meerut and later again in 1883 in Udaipur, Rajputana. One only wishes the Arya stalwarts of later times had heeded to the advice of their mentor, the great Rishi and avoided rushing into quagmire of courts of law where angels feared to tread. Indeed the image of the Arya Samaj would have been brighter than what it is today.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati advised the Aryas of the Arya Samaj to stand solidly behind their co-religionists who face fearful odds, like a solid rock. A case from Moradabad, UP, may be cited. Munshi Indramani who wrote many tracts and books criticizing the Islamic attack on the tenets of the Vedic Dharma and launched a counter-attack on the contradictions in Islam was hauled up before a court of law to face a trial. Swami Dayanand Saraswati wrote letters and made verbal appeals to all and sundry to stand by Munshi Indramani and provide him both moral and material support. Aid started pouring in. Initially, Munshi ji was found guilty but when the Aryas went in appeal, he was eventually acquitted. Such was the rewarding result of unity among the Aryas forged by the Swami
.

Swami Dayanand Saraswati was a great protagonist of a common link language to bring about unity among the Aryas and Indians at large. He favoured the Arya Bhasha or Hindi. The Swami was himself A Gujarati and spoke mother tongue as an adolescent, had his studies in Sanskrit but promoted Hindi as a language of unity among Indians. No wonder, all his treatises are written in Sanskrit and Hindi. When the Government of India, under the British Raj, appointed the Hunter Commission to decide on the issue of an official court language in various provinces, Swami Dayanand campaigned for Hindi. Although he had only partial success in Bihar and Central Provinces but he pressed on, notwithstanding success in parts. The common man was motivated and his morale was raised high. The flag of Vedic principles was raised high and it fluttered in the air to be seen by all and sundry.
The founder of the Arya Samaj paid utmost attention to unity and solidarity in the society. He never intended to be known as a founder of a sect that would cut itself away from the vast society of the Hindus. He stressed that the ancient Vedic Dharm was his creed and the Ved mantras in original text were the ultimate forum to decide what constituted Dharma and what did not. He had seen and known how infallible the Brahmos of Bengal had become by moving away from the path of their forefathers and by tilting towards Christianity. Roots were roots, if diseased-these were to be cleansed and treated with a dose of reform; and under no circumstances were the roots to be cut or the original tree to be uprooted. While writing the Satyarth Prakash, the great Swami made the point crystal clear.
Thus he did not hesitate even for a single moment in launching a frontal attack on those men and organizations that were destroying the Indian economy by slaughtering cows. He spearheaded the anti cow slaughter movement and enlisted the support of kings and commoners by obtaining their signatures on a petition to be submitted to Queen Victoria, the reigning Empress of India. Above all, it was a movement of solidarity of society and should be viewed as such. Unfortunately, Dayanand Saraswati’s untimely demise gave a severe blow to this movement of solidarity but the point had been made and it was for the followers to pick up the thread from where he had left.
The Renaissance Rishi was not dogmatic. He had an open mind and acted on the suggestions made to him in good faith. Acharya Keshav Chandra Sen of the Brahmo Samaj had met the Rishi in Calcutta and suggested that the latter give his discourses in Hindi, instead of Sanskrit, for the common man to understand and appreciate. Further, the educated ladies wished to form a part of the audience to listen to the learned interpretations of the Ved mantras but fought shy of his scantily covered body. The Rishi accepted both the suggestions and acted accordingly. The numbers of men and women in the audiences swelled indeed. The people came from far and wide to see and hear him. His preaching missions were a great success in the land of intellectuals in Bengal.
The aim of writing this article is to highlight Rishi’s life and times and narrate those events and anecdotes that had far-reaching consequences historically. Among these must figure his travels to preach and propagate the true and ancient Vedic Dharma. Multan in the north to Pune in the Deccan; Rajkot in the west to Calcutta in the east form the large canvas that he painted in the Vedic colours. Of course, there were many cities, villages and towns in various provinces in between where he had hoisted the flag of OM and given discourses. Many a time he traveled in great discomfort risking his life and limb but he remained determined to carry on with his mission. Of course, the Punjab became the citadel of the Arya Samaj after his founding the Arya Samaj in 1877 in Lahore. It was there that the 28 principles of the Arya Samaj formulated in Bombay in 1875 were abbreviated and rearranged to TEN. These are observed and remain valid right to the present day.
We must make a mention of Rajputana that the Rishi had made his work place in the last years of his life. The Rishi’s aim was to make rulers well versed in the principles and practice of good governance as mentioned in the Sanskrit texts of yore like the Manu Smriti. Thereafter both the ruler and the ruled will be happy and carry on with their lives as per the teachings of the Vedas. He had a roaring success in the big State of Mewar where the Ruler, His Highness Maharana Sajjan Singh Ji became his devoted disciple. The Maharana studied Sanskrit and Manusmriti at the feet of the Rishi. Consequently, the education system of Mewar was reoriented to meet the Vedic standards. The Ruler personally performed daily Havan in his palace. It was going great guns for the Arya Samaj. Another princely state to follow the principles of the Vedic Dharma was Shahpura. Its ruler, His Highness Sir Nahar Singh Varma became a devout Arya himself and reformed the education system of his small principality. Both these rulers had, in turn become the president of the Paropkarini Sabha established by Swami Dayanand Saraswati and made a successor to his mission in the Swami’s last will and testament. Nonetheless, it was the state of Jodhpur that failed to preserve the person of the Swami and the poison potion administered to him by enemies of the Renaissance and reformation marked the beginning of the end of his life.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati demonstrated till his last breath that he indeed practiced what he preached. His ardent faith and belief in God remained unflinching till he breathed his last at Ajmer after a grave illness of one month and one day. At times the treatment was faulty and at times movement of his ailing body unnecessary. The Renaissance Rishi bore it with a smile. On the Diwali evening, 30 October 1883, came his end. The swami sat in his bed, recited Ved mantras, said hymns in Hindi and bowing to the will of the Almighty let his soul leave his body. A young man from the Punjab, Guru Datt, who had entertained atheistic ideas became an ardent Arya on seeing the Swami breathe his last with courage and forbearance. Indeed the lamp of life of the renaissance Rishi was thus extinguished and it in turn lighted many million lamps to lead men and women from darkness unto light.
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REVIEW OF BOOK ON DAYANAND SARASWATI


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Dayananda Sarasvati: His Life and Ideas

J. T. F. Jordens
Oxford University Press, 1997 – Biography & Autobiography – 368 pages
1 Review
A towering personality of his age, Swami Dayananda’s influence over the lives of thousands of people continues to this day through the Arya Samaj movement. This pioneering biography interprets Dayananda in his time as an integral part of the vigorous intellectual atmosphere of nineteenth-century India. Jordens analyses – through a close study of Dayananda’s writings and an investigation of his reading and personal relationships – the development of his ideas and theories and their relationship to both traditional Hinduism and the emerging trends of thought in nineteenth-century India. Dayananda’s involvement in social and religious reform is explored through analyses of its regional and historical contexts, and the classes and castes he influenced. This book provides a well-rounded account of Dayananda’s life, studying both his ideological development and social background with the help of contemporary documents and Dayananda’s own copious writings.
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AUM
Dayanand Saraswati : His life and Ideas by JTF Jordens is a book that I would like to read again and again. The material published therein is well researched and true to life as it existed in the days of Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
Prof Jordens, a respected scholar and researcher of the National University of Australia took study leave to come to India to meet people who are known Arya Samajists and visit places with which the great ascetic was associated both in his boyhood and adulthood days. One can safely rely on facts and figures given therein because the writer was neither a devotee nor a critic of the Swami who motivated men and women to go back to the VEDAS and spread the Vedic knowledge far and wide.Until the advent of Swami Dayanand Saraswati,the knowledge contained in the Vedas was not available to the common man. It was kept under lock and key by some Brahmins who themselves were not well versed in it. It was Dayanand Saraswati who wrote Hindi Bhashya that attracted the men and women of non-Brahminical order to the Vedas and brought about a revolution in the Hindu society.
It would be pertinent to mention that the writings of Dayanand Saraswati motivated educated men and women to join the freedom movement of India and wrest freedom from the British government.
May I recommend that the present book by Prof Jordens be translated into Hindi so that non-English knowing Aryas too are benefited.
Review by Brigadier(Retd) Chitranjan Sawant,VSM. Email: aumchitranjansawant@gmail.com

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RASHTRAPATI BHAWAN BUGGY

AUM
Rashtrapati Bhawan Buggy in Ceremonial Use
By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
As an army officer I love to ride horses. Before the armour plated Tanks made a debut at the end of World War I, horses were used for the deadly charge at the gallop to make the enemy infantry flee from the battlefield in mortal fear.
Horses not only used in attack mode, were also used for joy rides by officers and families. Children love horse riding and make use of the opportunity when parents are posted to various military academies. Important institutions like the India Military Academy have horse drawn buggy too. These are made use of ceremonially and for joy rides too.
The most important buggy in service is the one in the Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi. It is indeed enchanting to look at. Its history is equally captivating. The shining long buggy drawn by six horses was a unique object to see. Of course, only the Viceroy of India had the privilege of sitting in it on ceremonial occasions but they were few and far between. Nevertheless the Viceroy’s buggy was always kept well maintained and ready for use whenever the Viceroy wished to go out for a drive along with his lady wife and his personal staff.
15th August 1947. The date brought independence to India. Viceroy shed off the title as a direct representative of the King Emperor of the United Kingdom but continued to be Governor General of India, thanks to Jawaharlal Nehru who was enamoured of the company of the Mountbattens and socialized with them without inhibitions. Pt Nehru loved to ask for and receive political advice on matters of State. Lord Louis Mountbatten even presided over some important cabinet meetings. Lady Edwina Mountbatten and their two daughters too loved to continue staying in the Governor General’s House, the present Rashtrapati Bhawan, as its constitutional occupants.
What about the Buggy? I have an interesting tale to tell. When the British Establishment departed lock stock and barrel for home, along with many other relics of the British Raj, the Viceroy’s Buggy too was left behind in Bharat. When all assets were being divided between India and Pakistan in the ratio of 2:1, came the ticklish issue of the Viceroy’s buggy. It was only one of its kind and no decision about its ownership post independence could be made. The legend has it that the commandant of the Viceroy’s Bodyguard represented India and his second-in command who represented Pakistan chose to toss a coin and name head or tale. In this game amounting to gambling, India won the toss and the buggy. Pakistan was rather sad to lose the iconic buggy but it had no way out.
On 26 January 1950, the President’s Bodyguard was rechristened as Rashtrapati Angrakshak and the Buggy came to be known as the Rashtrapati Bhawan Buggy. By the way, it is the only buggy drawn by six sturdy horses. It has been going on like that since then. Of course, use of the buggy was perforce abandoned for security considerations after the assassination of Smt Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India on 31st October 1984. The terror loomed large on the political firmament of India. The buggy too was confined to its resting place. Nevertheless, it was not the final word on the subject.
Imagine how different and peaceful the scene was on 26 January 1950 when Dr Rajendra Prasad, our first President sat in the buggy elegantly and the Rashtrapati Angrakshak escorted him throughout old Delhi’s Chandni Chowk and New Delhi before he entered the Irwin Stadium to take the salute at the First Republic Day Parade in the afternoon.However, the same buggy disappeared from public view in 1984 for security considerations.Indeed, the common man missed it.
President Pranab Mukherjee made a considered decision to use it in 2014 for ceremonial occasions. Besides going for a buggy ride on the 330 acre President’s Estate off and on, he rode in state to Vijay Chowk for Beating Retreat ceremony to and fro. He also rode in Buggy from the Forecourt of the Rashtrapati Bhawan to Gate No 5 of the Sansad Bhawan for addressing the joint session of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha in the Central Hall of the Sansad Bhawan. Indeed the Buggy underwent some important repairs to be roadworthy because it had been off road for a fairly long time for security reasons. It is hoped that it would be put to use when the State occasion requires so that it does not revert to a beyond-Local Repairs state as it once was in.
Shri Ram Nath Kovind, the present President of India had ridden in the Buggy on 25 July 2017 along with Shri Pranab Mukherjee when both went to the Central Hall of the Sansad Bhawan for their handing-taking over ceremony. They had returned together to the Rashtrapati Bhawan in the Buggy, although their status had undergone a sea change.
Turning over pages of history, we once again touch 15th August 1947. The public flag hoisting of the Tricolour of the Independent India was scheduled to be done in C Hexagon near India Gate. The place has been renamed as August Kranti Maidan when the Nation celebrated the golden jubilee of the Quit India Movement. On the Independence Day in 1947, there was a massive crowd on the Rajpath, then called the King’s Way. Viceroy’s Buggy with Lord Mountbatten, Lady Edwina Mountbatten, Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India left the Viceroy’s House at the appointed hour. However the mammoth crowd had occupied the road. The six-horse drawn Buggy could not cross the India Gate to reach the flag hoisting venue where official paraphernalia and the British Government staff had assembled.
Everyone was a bit nervous how to solve the problem and reach the appointed place at the appointed time to hoist the national flag, the Tricolour. Lord Louis Mountbatten made the command decision. He stood in the Buggy in his uniform with full medals and looked at the ADC who stood near the flag post. From that distance, Lord Mountbatten signaled to his ADC to hoist the national flag of India. The ADC did that dutifully. The first hoisting of the national flag in an open public place was done ceremonially as described here, the band struck the national anthem of free India and masses stood to attention as best as they could while jostling had not ceased.
Thus the Rashtrapati Bhawan Buggy has been playing important roles while the history of Bharat had been undergoing changes of historical importance. We hope the important six- horse drawn carriage will continue to be in use every now and then on occasions of ceremonial importance and not be allowed to slip into oblivion.
Email : aumchitranjansawant@gmail.com Mobile: 9811173590.

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NARENDRA MODI AT DAVOS

AUM
NARENDRA MODI AT WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM
By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
Superb, just superb – that is how I would call Pradhan Mantri Narendra Modi’s almost hour long Hindi speech at the World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland before a distinguished appreciative audience this afternoon. Sitting in Noida, thousands of miles away from snowy Swiss Alpine, I remained glued to my TV set from the beginning to the end of Modi Ji’s address. I shall be truthful when I say that I did not feel bored or distracted even for a second and considered myself with my wife, Sudha sitting cheerfully beside me, as a member of the educated economists audience who had travelled thousands of miles to be there. I DID FEEL A LITTLE COLD WHEN SHIVERING SENSATION MOVED ALL ALONG MY SPINE ON SEEING Narendra bhai standing there in the open with an uncovered head.
Klaus Schwab, founder of the Forum, introduced our Prime Minister to the audience with warm words and warmer feelings even to the extent of using the Sanskrit words VASUDHAIV KUTUMBKAM signifying the Bhartiya Darshan that the world is treated by us as one Family.
PM Narendra Modi looked impressive standing erect behind the rostrum. His face had a glow, the trimmed white beard and well cut white hair on his head testified to the grey matter in the brain and enriched knowledge inherited from rishis and munis who had been doing tapasya for many a millennium in days of yore. Modi Ji kept on quoting from our ancient literature pronouncing Sanskrit words correctly throughout his address like a graduate of a Gurukul Kangri. There was nothing therein that would go over the heads of mostly English educated listeners. The multi-lingual and multi-cultural audience was won over by the speaker the moment he folded his hands and uttered the word Namaskar. When he finished his address he had put his palms together and said NAMASTE.
Narendra Modi Ji acknowledged the economic progress made by the world during these two decades that the two Prime Ministers of India held the floor of the Forum to present a report card of progress made by Bharat but did not fight shy in enumerating the chasm appearing between sections of society world over. The world community must come together to face today’s challenges and find pragmatic way out of morass lest we cease to exist as human beings.Bharat always makes an endeavour to bring world communities together and not keep them apart. The economic progress is noticeable all around but there is no denying the fact that the misunderstanding and one side running down the other is also on the increase.
The Prime Minister of India listed three major challenges that our international human society faces today. With a view to surviving and living with ease we must come together and find solutions to these nagging problems. Narendra Modi Ji listed the three major challenges thus:
a) Climate Change.
Our economic and industrial progress is also eating into the vitals of our body, mind and spirit. The world is living on two extremes – global warming and global cooling. Glaciers are melting, snow clad mountains have less snow now than they used to have before. Consequently there is more water in rivers and lakes. Quite a few islands are on the brink of submerging into water of rising levels of seas and water bodies. On the other hand some mountains are having more snowfall than it ever had. Modi ji quoted co-founder of the World Economic Forum to say that Davas has been having more snowfall this year than it had in the last two decades. Thus the climate on two extremes is preventing a healthy growth of environment. The climate change has to be controlled lest some living species are wiped out from face of the Earth.
The world community must face the challenge of carbon emission unitedly. The developed nations cannot ignore the developing nations and lay the blame of carbon emission at their door. The human beings and the mother Earth are not at war with each other but should continue living in peace like Mother and Son. The relevant Veda Mantra is:
“Bhumi Mata Putro Aham prithivyah”
The correct way to tackle the problem of over exploitation of our Natural resources is to make use of them with a spirit of renunciation. The Isho Upanishad gives us guidance in the matter when the Mantra says:
“tein tyakten bhunjitah, ma kasya swidhanam”
We human beings must partake of fruits of Nature with a spirit of renunciation because the earthly wealth does nor belong to anyone in perpetuity.
Modi Ji also quoted Gautam Buddh and Mahatma Gandhi in this regard; the former advocated the philosophy of APARIGRAH –NOT ACCUMULATING MORE WEALTH THAN IS NEEDED BY US FOR A LIVING, the latter advised his compatriots to use the natural resources as Trustees and not as owners in perpetuity.

b) TERRORISM
The problem of international terrorism must be solved by the world community unitedly. No nation should be permitted to differentiate between Good Terrorists and Bad Terrorists. Terrorists are just terrorists and must be dealt with as such without fear or favour. Prime Minister Narendra Modi did not name any country that harbours and shields terrorists but his phraseology was clear enough to make audience understand that it was none other than Pakistan that indulged into this demonic game.
The Prime Minister said that he would not dwell at length on this issue as enough has been said and written on it. Nevertheless, it was the duty of all countries that are members of comity of nations to ensure that Terrorism is not permitted to harm the international community and hamper its economic progress.

c)
Globalisation is fine but Protectionism harms it. On the one hand we wish to live like a global village and on the other hand we provide protection to our own goods and manufacture of items in own country. A balance has to be struck between goods made in own country and goods imported from other countries.
Every country must make flexible laws in this regard. Citing some archaic Indian laws that were a road block to progress in globalization or harmed neighbourly relations, the Modi government had them annulled. In three years of the present administration, as many as 1400 old laws were declared null and void through due process of law. Eulogising the Bhartiya Dharm and Sanskriti, Narendra Modi said that caring for our neighbours and neighbouring countries has been a part and parcel of the Indian way of life.
Our slogan for progress is: REFORM, PERFORM, TRANSFORM.
A beginning has to be made. I quite know that the performance of our present government should not be assessed by our bold steps in Demonetisation and bringing in new law on GST – goods and services tax. Nevertheless these are counted as economic achievements because they checked corruption and streamlined administration making tax collection smoother.
The Indian way of life has the philosophy of SABKA SAATH, SAB KA VIKAS ingrained. Whatever economic progress we aim at is for one and all; it is inclusive and not exclusive. Our prayer is for one and all. It says:
SARVE BHAVANTU SUKHINAH; SARVE SANTU NIRAMAYAH
SARVE BHADRANI PASHYANTU, MA KASHCHID DUKH BHAGBHAVETU.
It means we pray for wealth and wellness of all human beings. Let all human beings be free from diseases, we pray for wellbeing of all, so that no one is ever sad and depressed.
Pradhan Mantri Narendra Modi invited all business tycoons to India, to make in India and enjoy the calm that prevails. Ease and comfort are there to motivate you all to “Make In India.” Bharat will provide Peace and Prosperity.
NAMASTE.
Email: aumchitranjansawant@gmail.com Mob. 9811173590.

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