By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM

PRAJANAN or Procreation is an inborn instinct of a living being. Humans, animals, fish, fowl and Vanaspati or Vegetation leave behind numerous living beings of their kind before they depart for good.

Right at the beginning of the Creation, Ishwar had given the Vedas to the Rishis for the guidance of human beings to lead a life of righteousness. Along with the Gyan of Life and desire to have children was the knowledge of providing stability of social order. Human beings stabilized process of procreation by formalizing the social institution of Vivah or marriage to bring in order and discipline  through sublimation of sex. The Vedic injunction against sex for pleasure by allowing copulation between lawfully wedded husband and wife at an appropriate time only to beget children continues to hold in check humans running amuck for wild sex.

Many a time varied reasons like death and disease cause separation between the husband and wife at a young age when they are childless, so what is the way out to enable the separated man or woman to fulfill the religious duty of leaving behind a son or a daughter so that the human race not only survives but prospers. Well the answer is NIYOG.


When a widow wishes to have children after the demise of her husband, she lets the social order know of her desire and selection of a male member for copulation as per Vedic Vidhan to beget a child, it is termed as Niyog. In the case of Niyog “ the widowed woman remains in the house of the deceased husband…..children born of Niyog are not called children of the begetter, nor belong to his family, nor has he any claim over the children.” This excerpt is taken from the Satyarth Prakash chapter four written by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati in Hindi and translated into English by Pt Ganga Prasad Upadhyay.

In this context it is important to make clear the claim of the child born of Niyog on the property of the man who begot him or her. A child begotten in Niyog will continue the lineage of the deceased husband of the widow and get a share in the property of the deceased husband of the widow concerned and live in her marital home. Thus one may say that a child begotten in Niyog has no legal share in the property of the man whose sperm fertilized the egg of his mother to bring him into this world. Similarly, the begetter of the baby in Niyog will never ever lay a claim of any kind at birth or thereafter. In the eye of law, no relationship moral, spiritual or financial will exist between the begetter and the baby.


A doubting Thomas may raise a doubt about the legal validity of Niyog by pointing out the erroneous thought and labeling Noyog as adultery. Let it be understood that Niyog is not a sin nor an adulterous act. Niyog is willful and consensual act of sex between  a man and a woman with the sole intent of begetting a baby and it is done within the knowledge of the social order that the two belong to. It is not a hush-hush affair done for fun at night under the cover of darkness. The common point between a lawful marriage and a Niyog is  : Both are made known to the social order that the man and the woman belong to. Well, a question may arise: what happens if the first attempt to impregnate a woman fails? Well, there is no embargo on making a second or a third attempt. One should remember that the declared desired intention of the man and the woman concerned is to have a baby and everyone in the neighbourhood knows about it. So, Niyog is not a sin or a crime because it is not done under the cover of darkness or in secrecy. On the other hand, adultery is a nocturnal affair where sex is performed for fun away from the prying eyes of the social or moral police, what to say of the State Police.

It would be a good idea to quote from the Satyarth Prakash  what Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati wrote in reply to a question about procedure to be followed in Niyog :

     “ Just as marriage is performed by proclamation, so is NIYOG. As marriage requires sanction of the society and consent of the couple, so does Niyog. When a man and a woman want to perform Niyog, they ought to declare before men and women of their families that they want to enter into Niyog relation for the sake of issues, that they will sever their connection when the purpose of Niyog is fulfilled, that they should be counted as sinners and be penalized by the society and the State if they do otherwise, that they will meet for intercourseonly once a month and will abstain from intercourse for a year after the conception.

 ( The translation from Hindi into English is done by Pt Ganga Prasad Upadhyay, an eminent Vedic scholar and preacher par excellence)

The Rishivar, a great religious and social reformer, was determined to apprise people of Bharat and later of the world the correct concept of Vedic Dharma and encourage both the Vedic Dharmis and others to follow what the Vedas laid down. That is the only way our human race may show an improvement.The observant Swami knew what way the sinners were going and reforming them was his duty, he thought. He advocated Niyog with the same fervor as the age-old institution of marriage – the Vedic Vivah. He equated the two procedures as the way to procreate. Sexual intercourse was the only way to procreate and one should not have a sense of shame or Lajja in advocating propagation of Niyog.

In the fourth chapter of the Satyarth Prakash dwelling on Niyog, Rishivar wrote and I quote him in original Hindi :

      “ Niyam se Vivah hone se ( stree-Purush ka sambhog – bracketed words are mine) vyabhichar nahi kahata, to niyampoorvak NIYOG hone se vyabhichar nahi kahavega………Ved shastrokt Niyog mein vyabhichar, paap, lajja na manana chahiye”

A free rendering into English would run thus: If a man and a woman are married as per the laid down procedure( their cohabitation would not be called promiscuity), likewise Niyog done as per procedure would not be termed promiscuity.      Niyog performed as per Vedic and Shastriya procedure would not be termed promiscuity entailing sin and shame.

It can be safely said that the Seer of the Arya Samaj knew that the sexual instinct of human beings led them astray. The Hindu widows were at the receiving end and quite oppressed socially. Their social and economic condition would improve if they were socially permitted to beget children and have a hope in the future. Therefore, Maharishi Dayanand strongly advocated through his writings and speeches the reintroduction of Niyog in our socio-religious order.


As of now the social acceptance of Niyog in the Hindu social order is rather dismal. The forward looking socio-religious organization like the Arya Samaj, founded by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati in 1875 in Mumbai did not spearhead the movement. In 1877 with the establishment of the Arya Samaj in Lahore, the Punjab became its citadel. However, it was rather unfortunate that the Arya stalwarfs including Pradhans of the Arya Samaj Anarkali, Lahore like Lala Saindas, Mahatma Hansraj and others were rather lukewarm to the concept of Niyog. It was socially unacceptable in the open parlance but practiced clandestinely without flying the flag of Niyog.

Like the Garbhadhan Sanskar, the Niyog too could not gain popularity as men and women devoted to the Ten Principles of the Arya Samaj were rather diffident in declaring that on a particular day or night they would be sharing the bed with the avowed aim of begetting a child. What if the effort failed and conception did not take place? The couple might become the laughing stock of the persons known and unknown. Thus performing a Havan for Garbhadhan or with the declared intention of Niyog requires a lot of social courage that they lacked. Therefore, both these SANSKARS REMAINED A THEORETICAL EXERCISE CONFINED TO THE PAGES OF THE SANSKAR VIDHI AND THE SATYARTH PRAKASH.

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• bravery beyond borders of BHARAT
• By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM

TOYO, TAKLAKOT, Tibet – that is the hallowed place where stands a dilapidated Samadhi of a brave man called General Zorawar Singh, a Kahluria Rajput of the 19th century India.

He was born in 1786 in the Kangra district but his bravery blossomed in the Dogra army of Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu. He is known not only for his generalship but also statesmanship. He fought and won battles in far off foreign lands of Baltistan in the West and Tibet in the East. He annexed the foreign territories conquered by the Dogra army under his leadership and made them a part of the Jammu Raj. Ladakh is now a part of India,THANKS to bravery and sagacity of General Zorawar Singh.

Never has an individual king or captain fought and won so many ferocious battles in foreign lands located far away from the home base and eventually made them a part and parcel of his motherland as was done by General Zorawar Singh.

What a shame that not many of his compatriots know about his adventures as not many historians of repute wrote or ballad singers sung in his honour so that his name and deeds are etched in the hearts and minds of the posterity. His last resting place, the Samadhi or Chorten (in Tibetan language) looks askance at the Indian pilgrims who are on way to or are returning from holy Mount Kailash but a mute stare of helplessness is all that it receives in return.


Young Zorawar took interest in the management of his ancestral lands in Kangra and always thought of ways and means of improving the agricultural production.

He was a precocious administrator right from the beginning. Notwithstanding small agricultural holdings that Zorawar’s family possessed, he took pains to ensure that there was no encroachment on it nor an attempt to effect adverse possession to be recorded by the village official.

One of Zorawar’s cousins had an eye on a part of the common holding and made himself busy with making evil designs to grab what was not his. Zorawar was a man of integrity and expected others too to be clean in theirDEALINGS . Since the cousin concerned was bent upon playing foul in disposal of the ancestral land, a fight was bound to take place. It did. Zorawar had the better of his cousin in a sword fight and the rogue met his end. The friends and relatives of the killed cousin wished to frame Zorawar legally and have him incarcerated.

As the legal proceedings were likely to go against the interests of young Zorawar who was just a teenager, the young man decided to flee his ancestral village to escape legal proceedings and rigours of a jail life. He went to Haridwar, the famous place of pilgrimage of Hindus of all shades and hues.

Some contemporary historians of sorts believed that Zorawar landed in Haridwar, one of the most sacred places of pilgrimage for the Hindus, more for personal atonement than to escape the long arms of law. He was a religious minded straight forward fellow and went to the place of pilgrimage to pray for a Divine Pardon. He did not want to carry this baggage of guilt resulting from the unintentional killing of a cousin all his life. The earlier atonement of sin was done the better it would be.

It was, therefore, this religious atonement of sin rather than escaping arms of law that found him in a different garb in Haridwar.

Destiny had better thingsIN STORE for young Zorawar than he himself had planned. In Haridwar, Zorawar came across Rana Jaswant Singh of Doda, Jammu and the Rana saw in Zorawar the great spark of military genius and leadership that would win laurels both in war and peace. The Rana took young Zorawar to Doda along with him with the intention of training him as a soldier. He did precisely that. Young Zorawar came out of the training phase with flying colours.

He showed a keen interest in Logistics and specialised in the effective handling of Logistics as a force multiplier in war. His brilliant ideas in this field were appreciated by military experts of this branch of military strategy. What a pity, the same Zorawar, as a General and a matured and experienced commander in the battle field, lost the war at village TOYO in Tibet because of failure of Logistics in severe winter when soldiers burnt the Woodstock of their rifles and other firearms to keep themselves warm in the absence of regular fuel. Reinforcements and other essential supplies had failed to reach and the inevitable happened. More of that a little later.

While handling Logistics in Doda, young Zorawar had a chance meeting and a chat on effecting economy with the boss of the show, Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu. The new proposals for bringing in economy to save State exchequerMONEY , put forward by young Zorawar was appreciated by the Raja and he gave a green signal to implement it. Not only that; young Zorawar was made incharge of the new project that he handled with aplomb and won laurels. Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu was mighty happy with Zorawar and made him Governor of Doda-Reasi-Kistwar area and conferred on him the rank of a Wazir.

Wazir Zorawar Singh did not look back after that and his march forward was onward and onward.


Chandragupt Maurya and Samudragupt were emperors of India who had moved their forces in Central Asia, defeated foreign armies and even married princesses of Greek royal household. The distant drums of India had not been heard in Central Asia thereafter. It was left to Wazir Zorawar Singh to march there with his combined armies of Dogras, Ladakhis and other foreigners professing faiths different from the Hindu Dharma and yet make them a homogenous fighting outfit that engaged and defeated in battles commanders and common soldiers of various Muslim principalities of Baltistan.

I shall give a short pause to my narrative toOFFER bouquets to Vazir Zorawar Singh and his Dogra soldiers. Loyalty was a remarkable factor in winning battles in Baltistan. It was a two-way traffic, soldiers to the commander and back from the commander to the soldiers. The deep sense of loyalty made them victorious wherever they went and fought. The TRUST built between them over a period of time saw them through thick and thin. There were acts of chivalry beyond the call of duty. For them the Dogra kingdom of Dogra Desh with Maharajah Gulab Singh at the helm of affairs, was everything. They hesitated not in sacrificing their lives at the altar of victory in battle.

No wonder, entire Baltistan was theirs and they marched in victory processions from town to town; from principality to principality.

Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar and adjoining areas of Baltistan, far away from their homeland, Dogra Desh, came under the direct rule of Maharajah Gulab Singh whose flag flew from the hills and dales of scenic surroundings. The Dogras,THANKS to the capable military leadership of General Zorawar Singh, were monarchs of all they surveyed. The Company Bahadur of the Englishmen had given their seal of approval to the unfurling of the Dogra flag in the distant land but had cautioned them to be vary of the Russian bear that was on the prowl right there. In other words, General Zorawar Singh’s military operations were restricted within the Lakshman Rekha drawn by the British overlords.

It was a wonder of wonders. Simple Dogra men whose main profession was agriculture in villages and who lived below snow line were now conquerors and masters of Baltistan moving near snow line and practising their strategy of Loyalty, Trust, Training in peace to win wars and Will to Achieve Aim, come rain come shine. The Dogra army of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu, under the capable leadership of Vazir Zorawar Singh made history and had become a force to reckon with.

Even their own kinsmen of the Lahore Durbar received a complaint from Mehan Singh, Governor of Kashmir under the Sikh rule, that prayed for putting a stop to Zorawar Singh’s campaign beyond Baltistan lest the interest of the Sikh kingdom was harmed. The Lahore durbar forwarded the complaint to Maharaja Gulab Singh who, reading between the lines, ordered Vazir Zorawar Singh to freeze in his tracks in Baltistan. TheORDERS were obeyed.

Vazir Zorawar Singh had replaced the ruler of Skardu, Ahmad Shah with his son, Muhammad Shah and the arrangement gained popular support. The new ruler started paying Rs7,000 per annum to Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu as a tribute and accepted the suzerainty of the Dogras.General Zorawar Singh built a new fort at Skardu and positioned a contingent of Dogra soldiers to keep an eye on the rebellious elements of Baltistan. It showed the confluence of military and political acumen of General Zorawar Singh because of which Baltistan region including Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar were a part of India. Of course, Pakistan gained control of these Northern Areas surreptitiously in August 1947 with the connivance of the rogue elements among the British officers and Muslim troops among Maharajah’s army.

Wazir Zorawar Singh despatched a contingent of the Dogra force under Wazir Lakhpat to move further up and capture Fort Astor and that was done without meeting much resistance from the Muslim forces who were already under an awesome spell of the Dogra superiority. The Darad raja was taken prisoner but had to be released later under orders of the Lahore durbar of the Sikh kingdom.


The genius of Zorawar manifested itself in his planning and preparation for an eastward march towards Tibet since the Westward March had been blocked by the Lahore Durbar and the British Governor General sitting in Fort William, Calcutta too was a bit uneasy about the Westward march of the Dogras.

Another of the six Expeditions of General Zorawar Singh to the high lands of Ladakh and the plateau of Tibet was undertaken.

The stocky Dogras climbed up the high hills from Reasi in the Jammu region to the place of origin of Suru river, traversing Zanskar made it to Leh, capital of the little Tibet, that is Ladakh. The rag tag army of Namgyal, Gyalpo of Ladakh was no match to the battle seasoned Dogras of Zorawar Singh.

The military skirmish was over before it began and the rebels disciplined for hobnobbing with defiant Botis of Baltistan. With this mission accomplished, Zorawar turned to Tibet, untrampled by foreign feet so far. Travelling westward on horseback, on foot in an unknown land through large tracts of barren land and small hamlets of strange men andWOMEN professing faith of the Buddha, the Dogras reached Taklakot or Purang near holy Mount Kailash and Lake Mansarovar. General Zorawar Singh and his compatriots, not forgetting new Ladakhi and Balti allies, had a Darshan of kailash Parvat and took a dip in lake Mansarovar. Spiritual contentment was writ large on their faces. Little did anyone realise that this was the last holy dip and Darshan as death and destruction were lurking nearby.


General Zorawar Singh had headed such a successful campaign in Ladakh, onward in Baltistan and back in Ladakh that he and his fellow soldiers did not know how to thank their stars. In his own mind the General was planning a much bigger campaign to an unknown land to fly the Dogra flag there. He was awaiting reinforcements from homeland and also a word of Shabash from Maharajah Gulab Singh for achieving the near impossible. He and his men got a pat on the back but noCLEARANCE for moving to places unknown until they had a concrete campaign plan with a sound back up of men and material.

Winter fell. There was an early snowfall. Severe cold, frosty winds, lack of fuel for warming men and armaments took their toll on life and limbs. The bayonet strength fell from day to day. Food for men and fodder for the animals was in short supply. The soldiers burnt Woodstock of rifles and other weapons to keep the human body warm. And yet frostbite did not spare the sturdy dogras from Doda, Reasi, Jammu and even Botis and Ladakhis. The soldiers’morale was in theirBOOTS .

Meanwhile, the Chinese and Tibetans had assembled a sizeable force in the Taklakot region. Being natives of the place, the cold did not damage their body and minds so much as it did to Dogras. At an opportune moment the enemy struck. In the fierce battle that ensued, a bullet pierced through the right shoulder of the General but he picked up his sword with the left hand. A Tibetan horseman came charging and pierced his lance through the chest of the brave chief; who breathed his last on the battlefield. It was the month of December in the year 1841.

A large number of soldiers of the Dogra army met their glorious end fighting on a foreign soil in inclement weather where it was difficult to distinguish friend from foe. It was a sad end to a glorious career. A Samadhi was made with large loose stones and ashes kept there. The Samadhi is known to the local people as “Sing-ba Ka Chorten”. On my way to holy Mount Kailash, I stood in front of the Samadhi to pay respectful homage to a great son of India who lies there, unwept and unsung. He did so much for Bharat Mata and isn’t it the turn of Sons of the Brave to honour the Brave?

The silence around the Samadhi in the absence of an answer is deafening indeed!

The Tibetans, being superstitious, cut small pieces of flesh from the general’s dead body to keep in their houses so that Zorawar-like chivalry was passed on among the Tibetan people fromGENERATION to generation.

The sad news was broken to Maharajah Gulab Singh in Peshawar by Commissioner Lawrence during a campaign against the tribal rebels. He hastily assembled an army of brave Dogras and despatched them towards Tibet to punish the guilty. The Dogras carried the day in a military engagement near Chushul in Ladakh and killed the enemy general in battle to avenge the death of dear old compatriot, Zorawar Singh, bravest of the brave.


Soldiers never die; they just fade away – an age-old saying is still doing rounds of military barracks when a hero who fell in battle is recalled. I must hasten to add that General Zorawar Singh is neither dead nor has faded away. The great Patriot is still with us and shall be with all Indians till eternity.

General Zorawar Singh always earned the respect of both the victorious friend and the vanquished foe. In battle he fought to defend the values of life as enshrined in our Dharma. His honesty and integrity went unchallenged till his last breath.

In BOOKS of history and research papers, General Zorawar Singh is rightly called : Napoleon of India.

Email : Mobile: 09811173590
1. May 9, 2016#2

o THANKS x 4
2. May 10, 2016#6


May 10, 2009
+0 / 1,571 / -9
Dr Gupta said: ↑
We need to tell our children the exploits of such heroes and make sure our historyBOOKS depict them in the correct light for the future generations to learn.

Of course! Its so bloody obvious our history books are full of fluff. I have to do my own extensive research to learn about the real India and that’s bloody sad. It means we have no control on how we present ourselves to the hearts and minds of the nextGENERATIONS . We leave our historical and future narrative in the hands of “others” who manipulate it and make us virtual slaves. No pride, no identity and no respect!
o Thanks x 1
3. May 10, 2016#7

Kiss_of_the_DragonSENIOR MEMBER

Aug 20, 2011
+10 / 10,900 / -0

Jamwal’s said: ↑
View attachment 304282
Is that a horse or a pony on that picture, seem like the man on the status is oversize?
4. May 10, 2016#8


Jul 17, 2015
+1 / 3,865 / -4

Kiss_of_the_Dragon said: ↑
Is that a horse or a pony on that picture, seem like the man on the status is oversize?
Considering he was a Rajput so his height must be somewhat similar to these Indians.

o THANKS x 1
5. May 10, 2016#9


Jan 1, 2010
+85 / 59,742 / -17

Baltistan itself wasn’t a single entity .. It was ruled by several Khanates and Emirates .. Small states ruled by lords .. No match for a bigger army/state ..

As for Pak.. Well Baltistan ceded with Pak in November 1947… The people who fought off the Dogra & British occupation were the locals and Muslim officers and 1 British officer ..

@Wajsal. @Gikmet Baltee
Jamwal’s said: ↑
Considering he was a Rajput so his height must be somewhat similar to these Indians.

View attachment 304352

View attachment 304353
What is the tallest community in India? Punjabis?
Last edited: May 10, 2016
6. May 10, 2016#10


Nov 24, 2015
+0 / 707 / -2

He was from my state proud of him,put fear in the heart of enemy
o THANKS x 1
7. May 10, 2016#11


Dec 9, 2012
+2 / 4,170 / -0
Jamwal’s said: ↑
The Tibetans, being superstitious, cut small pieces of flesh from the general’s dead body to keep in their houses so that Zorawar-like chivalry was passed on among the Tibetan people fromGENERATION to generation.

The Sikh Confederacy were annihilated after intruding into Tibet proper. Zorowar Singh, the commanding general, was captured and decapitated. Yeah right, they so very respected him.

Indians are truly world champion when comes to creating fairy-tale story to stroke their own ego.

Oh wait, did the author say Zorowar Singh was defeated due to cold weather? Same reason as 1962.
o THANKS x 2
Last edited: May 10, 2016
8. May 10, 2016#12


Jul 17, 2015
+1 / 3,865 / -4

Fattyacids said: ↑
The Sikh Confederacy were annihilated after intruding into Tibet proper. Zorowar Singh, the commanding general, was captured and decapitated. Yeah right, they so very respected him.

Indians are world champion when comes to creating fairy-tale story to stroke their own ego.

Oh wait, did the author say Zorowar was defeated due to cold weather? Same reason as 1962.
And how do you like the Dogra Revenge when they beheaded the Qing Chinese General during battle of Chushul 1842.

Chinese were so humiliated after this rout that they signed the treaty of Chushul and PRC still cry of Mc mohan line Lamo defeat chushul 1842&f=false

e then returned to Tirathpuri where he intended to pass the winter.Thus the Dogra General conquered about 720 km. Of the Tibetan territory (linear distance) in about three and a half months .

The Qing forces chased the retreating Dogras to Ladakh, but were defeated at the Battle of Chushul (August 1842) and their general beheaded to avenge the death of Zorawar Singh.

The subsequent Treaty of Chushul called for status quo ante bellum, with no transgressions or interference in the other country’s frontiers, as neither side wanted war
o THANKS x 3
9. May 10, 2016#13


Jan 1, 2010
+85 / 59,742 / -17

Jamwal’s said: ↑
And how do you like the Dogra Revenge when they beheaded the Qing Chinese General during battle of Chushul 1842.

Chinese were so humiliated after this rout that they signed the treaty of Chushul and PRC still cry of Mc mohan line Lamo

View attachment 304416 defeat chushul 1842&f=false

e then returned to Tirathpuri where he intended to pass the winter.Thus the Dogra General conquered about 720 km. Of the Tibetan territory (linear distance) in about three and a half months .

The Qing forces chased the retreating Dogras to Ladakh, but were defeated at the Battle of Chushul (August 1842) and their general beheaded to avenge the death of Zorawar Singh.

The subsequent Treaty of Chushul called for status quo ante bellum, with no transgressions or interference in the other country’s frontiers, as neither side wanted war
Click to expand…
Well you just claimed as Rajputs being tall etc.. Although on average Indians are shorter than Chinese and us.
o Thanks x 2
10. May 10, 2016#14


Jul 17, 2015
+1 / 3,865 / -4

Well you just claimed as Rajputs being tall etc.. Although on average Indians are shorter than Chinese and us.
“On an average” itself is flawed idea considering the number of ethnic communities in India.The proper idea is to compare Punjabis,Jats,Gujjar,bengali and Rajput etc with others.
o THANKS x 2
11. May 10, 2016#15


Nov 24, 2015
+0 / 707 / -2

Jamwal’s said: ↑
“On an average” itself is flawed idea considering the number of ethnic communities in India.The proper idea is to compare Punjabis,Jats,Gujjar,bengali and Rajput etc with others.
India probably has 2 to 3 time the amout of taller people than average pakistani more specifically punjabi as other ethnic group are generally not that tall,but as a whole we may be slightly smaller
o Thanks x 1
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By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
When I relax and think of the most excellent man who walked on this earth, the profile of Shri Krishna flashes across my mind. He was indeed the most beautiful person that one can think of. He was and continues to be the Beau Ideal of millions of men and women in many a millennium. He lived and died for the fellow human beings. He shared the joys and sorrows of kings and commoners alike. He was born in Dwapar Yug, the mega unit of Time just preceding our Kaliyug. By and large we agree that it was 5,000 years ago that he was born in Mathura of pious parents who were put in prison by a close relative called Kansa, the then king. Thus Shri Krishna was born in captivity but he , by dint of merit, hard work and humane nature became a liberator of Mankind.
Shri Krishna was so sweet by nature, word and deed that not only humans but animals too loved him. All living beings longed to be near him. He embraced one and all as if they were his kith and kin.
This is what the Ved mantra enjoined on men and women :
Mitrasya Chakshusha sarvani bhutani samikshantam
Let us treat all living beings as our friends : that was the Vedic teaching and Shri Krishna followed it in letter and spirit. After all, he had received his education in the Gurukul Ashram of Rishi Sandipani and had graduated to worldly life therefrom. The legendary friendship with a poor Brahmin had a beginning there and Shri Krishna nourished it in later life too. As the King of Dwarka, in western India, he had accorded same honour and respect to poor Sudama as to a fellow king or a mighty warrior. Of course, the large hearted largesse was in evidence too. Indeed it was a fine example of life-long friendship, notwithstanding the colossal difference in social status. A friend in need was a friend in deed; so said Shri Krishna through his actions.
Among the animals the Cow was at the centre of attention throughout. He loved cows. He cared for cows. For cows he was just a cowherd. He played his flute for cows and they came flocking to him. It was a genuine love for cows; not for their milk but for their loving company. It was the same type of soul or Jeevatma that stood embodied for action or Karma. So, the companionship with cows was also philosophical. Shri Krishna showed the way as a leader of men in loving animals and his kith and kin followed suit. A fraternity of human beings and other living beings symbolized by the cow was born here. One has to know and experience the Vedic ethos to appreciate this bond of love. Indeed the strife-torn world needs this philosophy of life more today than ever before. Shri Krishna is , inter alia, known as Gopal, that is the preserver and protector of cows. Let us emulate him and enlist ourselves as neo-gopals to protect and preserve the progeny of Cow. The world economy and environment will improve and love, instead of hatred, will prevail, It will indeed be a precursor of Peace on Earth.
Among numerous biographies of Shri Krishna there are refrences to folklore portraying wrongly his amorous nature. Suffice it to say that the so-called playful love of Radha Ji and Shri Krishna is philosophised by some scholars as the affinity of Atman or soul with Parmatman or God. In the present script we are portraying Shri Krishna as a Maha-Purush or a great man. No man is or should be equated with the Almighty. Therefore, the philosophy of love referred to above is fallacious and fails the litmus test of the Vedas. At best, one can say that when Shri Krishna left Vrindavan for Mathura to do away with the diabolical influence of demons he was just at the threshold of becoming a teenager. Radha was a full-fledged housewife. There was no chance of even an infatuation, what to say of a calf-love. The umpteen number of love-lores are pure figments of poetic imagination that have done more harm than good to the otherwise unblemished character of the great man. Let us leave it at that.
Let us quote Maharishi Swami Dayanand Saraswati on Shri Krishna :
“ Shri Krishna’s story (history) as told in the Mahabharat is indeed par excellence.His qualities,thought and action, character and totality of personality rank in the class of the Enlightened Ones. There is no reference therein to show that he deviated from the Dharm Path from birth to death. “
The great Rishi has really summed up well what the personality of Shri Krishna was. Indeed it was the epic battle of Mahabharat and epoch-making events preceding it that bring out the best of Shri Krishna. He emerges as a Yogeshwar, one who had mastered the art and science of Yoga, the physical, mental and spiritual meeting points – convergence of diverse forces for greater good of the greater numbers. Leaving folklore of boyhood days aside, we proceed to events that bring out sterling qualities of character of Shri Krishna.
Yogeshwar Shri Krishna emerges as a great man who put society before self. Whatever he did was for the good of the common man. No selfishness at all. Going chronologically, King Kansa was his first major kill. After removing that tyrant and eliminating him from the scene, he did not usurp kingdom of the deceased. He, in his charitable style, put Kansa’s father, Ugrasen, on the throne. The common man was happy as a benevolent ruler was once again at the helm of affairs. Peace prevailed.
Shri Krishna made it a point to punish the wrong-doer. It did not matter if the man to be punished was a king or a commoner. It was immaterial if the sinner was his close relative. An example was made of his first cousin, Shishupal. Notwithstanding his royal status, Shishupal was killed by Shri Krishna in public for his acts and omissions amounting to crime against humanity.
Shri Krishna was a Peacenik. Never was he a war-monger. When Duryodhan, the leader of evil forces refused to give to the Pandavas what was their due, Shri Krishna volunteered to present himself at the Kaurav Court as a Messenger of Peace. He played well the role of a peace maker. He offered to convince the Pandavas of the futility of war provided the Kauravas gave them just five villages, instead of a kingdom, and let them live with honour and dignity. It was the evil-doer Duryodhan who threw a red herring and refused to give the Pandavas even land covered by a needle-point. The blind King Dhritrashtra, remained blind to national interest and promoted his son blindly. Thus the peace mission failed. The war was inevitable. Mahabharat was the answer to oppression of the forces of the Good by the forces of Evil.
Of course, before going into battle Shri Krishna tried the path of diplomacy too. He knew that once Maharathi Karna abandoned Kauravas and joined the Pandavas where he belonged, the battle would be over before it began. He persuaded Kunti to go to Karna and make a clean breast of the past that the latter was indeed her son conceived and begotten before marriage and had to be abandoned. Shri Krishna made a sincere effort to convince Karna to save the society by eschewing the path of violence paved by the Kauravas. However, it was just too little and too late. Karna chose to stick to the Kauravas, come rain come shine. Now, the writing was on the wall. War, war and war.
Kurukshetra is the chosen battleground for an epic battle that lasted eighteen days. It was Mahabharat. It left an indelible mark on the history of Bharat. Before the battle began , Arjun, the commander-in-chief of the Pandava army lost heart. The will to do battle was missing. He did not want to kill his kith and kin and the acharyas for a mundane kingdom. In fact, he was so non-plussed that he abandoned his bow and arrow and was not in a fit state of mind to command his army. Here Yogeshwar Shri Krishna played a major role as a motivator of men who were in a state of bewilderment. His teaching and psychological approach made Arjun sit up, take stock of the situation and resume the operational command. Not doing so would have made Arjun go down in history as a coward and as a shammer who shunned his duty. “ Do thy duty, reward is not thy concern, “ said Shri Krishna. He emphasized that it was the laid down duty of a Kshattriya(the man of the warrior class) to protect the Dharma or righteousness and eliminate the forces of evil. So, one has to fight with Determination and win- so said Shri Krishna. The message is as relevant to men and women to-day as it was to Arjun in the Mahabharat. At the end of the war, the Pandavas were victorious and the Kauravas were vanquished. Shri Krishna was the guiding spirit through it all.
Shri Krishna is addressed as a Yogeshwar because he preached and practiced Yoga. He advocated complete balance in life, be it in food or behaviour in society or in our Karma, that is action in pursuance of duty to self and society. The same balance is to be maintained in our meditation and God-realisation. Shri Krishna himself summed it beautifully in this seventeenth sloka of the sixth chapter of the Shrimadbhagwat Gita :
” Yuktaharviharasya yukta cheshtasya karmasu
Yukta swapnavabodhasya yogo bhavati dukhha.”

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We Aryas take upon ourselves to study and imbibe wisdom of the Vedas with a view to preaching and propagating the Ved Mantras among the human beings. As per our belief, handed down from generation to generation, from the beginning of the Srishti, The Ved mantras were revealed by Ishwar in the hearts of the Rishis. Swami Dayanand Saraswati, our mentor and founder of the Arya Samaj, said that Ishwar revealed the Divine Knowledge in the form of Rigved, Yajurved, Samved and Atharvaved to four Rishis, Agni, vayu, Aditya and Angira. The divine knowledge has been handed down to us generation after generation.
When Swami Dayanand Saraswati formulated the Ten Principles of the Arya Samaj, shortened from 28 principles enunciated in 1875 when the Arya Samaj was formed at Kakarwadi, Bombay, now Mumbai. In Lahore, in the garden of Abdul Rahim,in 1877 in the presence of Rishivar Dayanand Saraswati, at the founding of the Arya Samaj in the Punjab, the 28 principles were chiseled and handed down to us in the form of Ten Principles that we read from the acknowledged text at the weekly Vaidik Satsang wherever the Aryas exist.
The third principle reads thus in the original language Hindi, thus:
Therefore, it is our most important religious duty to read the Ved mantras, imbibe the knowledge therein, preach and propagate the same among Mankind. A TRUE Arya is dutybound to follow this principle of the Arya Samaj.
VEDIC TRINITY is the basis on which the Vedic Philosophy rests. Ishwar, Jeevatma, Prakirt are the three columns on which the principle of Trinity rests. These are independent of each other. The TRATVAAD is the Trinity that the Vedic Philosophy lays emphasis on. The Ved mantra that makes this principle crystal clear is from the Rigved. It runs thus:
Rendered into simple English it means : two pretty birds sit on a tree well entwined showing friendly disposition towards each other. One bird partakes of the sweet fruit of that tree they are sitting on whereas the other bird is just watching the proceedings in a detached manner without showing any interest in the partaking of the fruit and just presides over the goings on.
Is it a riddle? No, it explains the Vedic Philosophy of Trinity. The bird that presides over the proceedings in a detached manner is Parmatma. The bird that is partaking of the fruit is Jeevatma. The tree and the fruits thereof represent the Prakriti or the matter. The Jeevatma or the soul acts independently and is answerable for its action or inaction, receiving reward or punishment as it deserves. The Matter forms the universe and is neither answerable for its action nor is rewarded, Prakriri neither acts nor is actionless. Atma and Parmatma are Chetan whereas the Matter is jada and actionless. The Tree in the present story is matter or Prakriti and is neither rewarded nor punished.
We Aryas must do Swadhyay or self study of the Ved mantras, thus meditate on its meaning and act as per injunction of the Ved mantras. Further a Ved pathi must go on propagating the Vedas among those who have so far been deprived of this divine knowledge. We have to be a confirmed believer in the injunctions of the Ved mantras so that we do Ved Prachar with a firm belief in the Vedas being Divine relevant Atharva Ved mantra runs thus:
Stuta Maya varda vedmata prachodayantam. Pavmani Dwijanam. Aayuh pranam prajam kirtim dravinam brahmavarchasam. Mahiyam datva vrajat brhmalokam. Yajurved 3.60
As a mother leads her child from darkness to light, likewise Ved Mata leads us to Ved gyan, and I worship her. To learn from the Guru, a vidyarthi has to be submissive. After learning the ved mantra, it is the sacred duty of the learner to carry on the process of teaching learning. Learning the Vedas will provide the learner with Life and life giving Pran or shwas-prashwas, sons and daughters, domestic animals, good name, wealth and superior knowledge leading to higher celestial knowledge.
On imbibing the Vaidik Gyan, we become DVIJ or twice born. One birth is given by mother and the other birth takes place on acquisition of Vedic Knowledge. Thus Ved Mata is is our Janani or mother who leads us to celestial knowledge.
A Ved Mantra enjoins on us to follow the laid down path like the Sun and Moon. Not to deviate from this Vedic path. We should emulate purity of life of Aryajan who are Daani, Ahimsak and Gyani and do so again and again.
Our readers may like to know the number of Mantras in each of the four Vedas:
Rigved : 10589
Yajurved : 1975
Saamved : 1875
Atharva Ved : 5975
This figure I have taken from my book, Vedic Thoughts.
One more Ved mantra should be mentioned as it is quoted time and again about illness and mantra path to recover from a disease. It runs thus:
Trayambakam yajamahe sugandhim pushti vardhaman,
Urvarukmiv bandhanat mrityormuksheeya mamratat. Yajurved 3.6o
May I breathe in and out like a pious yajna and thus control my mind and prevent it from running helter skelter . Control of the breathing system gives the practitioner stamina and power to inhale fragrance. With acquisition of control of mind I shall have a detachment from worldly living.
I shall be able to leave this world without pain like a ripe musk melon is detached from its mother plant and no one grieves. At the same time I should not be detached from the longing for self realization.
May I caution our Jigyasu that different text of Ved mantras give different numbers as there is interpolation here and there. A good researcher must take precaution not to be misled by fake numbers of Ved mantras and must strive for the true text.
I wish all my friends and foe to continue their research in the text of four Vedas and pursue higher studies based on the authentic text. Wishing a true learner success in the Vedic studies so that life becomes VEDMAY.
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By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
Peak of the Indian Summer, I am out in my UPVAN, the small backyard garden that gives me immense joy always and every time. Of course, the Sun overhead is blazing hot and my small radio transistor set did catch the Akashvani news giving day temperature 42 degrees Celsius. No problem because I am still basking out in the open under a kalptaru – a lovely green tree that provides shade and grants a boon too. A miracle indeed.
My sweet little khurpi is in my hand always ready to carry out my command of digging shallow trenches, planting saplings, uprooting weeds to protect greenery provided by tender plants. The pale, in Hindi a hazara, is by my side to quench the thirst of newly planted saplings of sorts. There may be water shortage all over the world but my lovely plants do not feel it as water is given to their roots morning and evening to keep them out of harm’s way. Members of my family comprising three generations complain of water shortage but I insist on quenching the thirst of my loving plants. Never mind if some humans perforce observe nirjal ekadashi frequently when even a drop of water is not permitted to quench the thirst.Sudha, my wife of more than five decades is the Head Mali and ensures that plants are watered adequately and on time.
Our son, Gaurav and daughter-in-law Aditi bought a lovely pail for me all the way from London to water plants as frequently as I wish to. I loved the present and put it in a glass almirah to be admired by visiting guests. I shall use the pail on a special occasion when I plant a sapling of a rare quality. Of course, they did mention the way Israelis water their plants in desert and beat the water crisis. The Israelis have identified the main roots of plants and water them only through sprinkling water on them alone leaving rest of the area as dry as dust. I just could not swallow their advice since I am a practitioner of flood irrigation when the plant is watered lock stock and barrel. If the Israeli farmer sees an Indian pseudo farmer like me, he would faint. So, I have not yet invited Tel Aviv fellow to our suburb of New Delhi.
The Indian Summer is to be seen to be believed. A European gentleman or a lady will not know what it is like until a visit is paid to North India at the peak of the Summer season. The nearest a foreigner may get to it is by reading the thrilling novel, The Heat and the Dust. The heat of Summer dries up the soil and generates so much dust as to give rise to a dust storm. I may recall that during one of my travels from abroad, our aeroplane pilot went through the experience of flying into a typical Indian dust storm. The Captain announced from the deck that it was almost impossible to land in New Delhi and they might seek cooler climes in another neighbouring country to beat the heat and the dust. Luckily it did not happen as he found a safe window to pierce through and land in the Indian capital without a mishap.
The idea of narrating the above story is to let a non-Indian reader taste a bit of the Indian Summer and the condition in which a diehard Indian horticulturist has to sow and reap plants of flowers and vegetables. The Indian horticulturists, especially the ladies, are by and large vegetarians. So cultivating flowers and arranging them aesthetically caters to finer taste but growing vegetables is a must to fill the belly and keep going in the Summer months. Many a time I have to answer questions of inquisitive visitors to my Upvan whether the small piece of land cultivated by me and my family with a part time professional gardener in tow is able to meet the need of my family’s kitchen.
In all frankness I must say “NO”, we have to go to a nearby vegetable market to buy fresh vegetables that are no patch on what we grow as far as quality and freshness are concerned. Of course, I am fond of gardening round the year including the summer months because I love to sit and enjoy greenery around. It is my mini farmhouse, an appurtenance to my main house. I lose financially in maintaining my garden but I gain in physical, mental and spiritual health. My mini garden keeps me healthy and happy. The greenery around pumps enough fresh oxygen into my lungs to help body breathe well and mind remain alert. The quality of my voice as a national commentator has been improving day by day. My hobby of horticulture helps me travel on the path of becoming a Centenarian.
I chant Ved mantras in my Vedic prayer morning and evening and I say,
“Jeevem Sharadah Shatam….. Adinah syam Sharadah Shatam”
Meaning – May I live for one hundred years and besides other things may I not depend on others for anything but be Independent – in body, mind and Spirit.
Since I spend four to five hours daily in the midst of plants and trees, I imbibe their good qualities. It steels my resolve to live to be a Centenarian and be of use to the society – the new generation. By the grace of Ishwar and good wishes of friends and loved ones I am running in the 86th year of my present life and the Nature will keep me healthy for another decade and a half plus. Good news. I shall complete 86 years of my existence on our planet Earth on 2nd June 2020. Another piece of good news from financial angle was passed on to me on Email by my bankers saying my monthly pension will be enhanced with effect from 1st June 2019 by 30 per cent on completing 85 years of my existence in the present form on planet Earth. I have already shared this welcome wealth with my lovely garden, the UPVAN.
The fodder for work in the garden will be provided by the garden itself, come rain come shine. Moreover, plants teach Patience. If one sows a seed today, one should not expect it to germinate overnight. It will take its time and the horticulturist has to have patience and await the day when the seed will germinate and become a sapling – a full fledged plant , a tree over a period of time. Please practice Patience through horticulture.
Why I have mentioned doing horticulture in summer is because these are the toughest months for tender plants to survive. Rainy season is a boon for our foliage, winter in plains is not really harsh but a horticulturist needs nerves of steel to keep working under the open skies, bearing the heat generated by the scorching Sun and keep the plants green and healthy despite water shortage. A real horticulturist will prefer to go thirsty but not let his green plants wither away for lack of water.
I may advise our new generation of boys and girls to cultivate the hobby of horticulture. Go Green for Health and Happiness and save mother Earth from degeneration because of our sins of sorts in multiplying our wishes and over burdening our Planet Earth –our Mother. The Veda emphasizes that Earth is our Mother and we are its sons and daughters:
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By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant, VSM
Was Tipu Sultan, Rajah of Mysore a patriotic warrior who loved Hindustan more than his own life and limbs? Or was he a Middle Age Islamist Jehadi whose actions and omissions were guided by his supposed zeal to convert Hindus, Christians and others of his principality to Islam and found a kingdom named Sultanat-e-Khudadad? This has been a hot topic of debate among historians, intellectuals and now politicians since he ascended the throne of Mysore at the age of 32 years in 1782.
Taking a close look at the events of his life wherein he was the principal player, one cannot but arrive at the conclusion that Tipu suffered from schizophrenia. Many a time he was unable to bring in cohesion between his thought and action. He often showed a tendency of withdrawal from reality on account of his failure to coordinate his emotions and behavior. He would think of becoming an effective ruler to mitigate suffering of his people and elevate their economic and social conditions but his obsession with converting his subjects to Islam by force, by hook or crook spoiled the paramount plan of good governance. RAJ DHARM was jettisoned and persona of a Ghazi embraced instead.
Tipu suffered from a sense of guilt all along. His father, Hyder Ali – an illiterate adventurer – had usurped the royal right to rule of the Hindu King of Mysore of the long standing Wodeyar dynasty and become de facto ruler. When he died of cancer in 1782, his eldest son, Tipu, became both de facto and de jure ruler of Mysore by imprisoning the real royalty. Tipu replaced every sign and symbol of the dynasty that had been ruling Mysore since the fourteenth century. He changed the Hindu names of people and places, struck coins in his own name replacing Sanskrit and Kanada with Persian and Urdu, writing letters to foreign Muslim rulers to invade Hindustan for Loot and in furtherance of the cause of Islam. Hyder Ali had ruled in the name of the Hindu King but everyone knew that he wielded the power. Tipu erased the name of the old Hindu dynasty, WODEYARS, but could not win over the hearts and minds of his people who were predominantly Hindus. This eventually cost him dearly in various military adventures of his.
It is a historical fact that Tipu had written to Zaman Shah, King of Afghanistan, to attack Hindustan for Loot and for the cause of Islam. He made sincere efforts to get military aid from the Ottoman Turk Empire but all his efforts came to naught since he was not a known personality outside Mysore or may be India. Tipu’s efforts in this direction failed to fructify as the said foreign ruler of Afghanistan had other preoccupations and affairs of Tipu’s Mysore mattered little to him. In frustration he wrote to other Arab rulers of Oman, Arabia and even to Napoleon Bonaparte but no foreign ruler came to his rescue when he needed their help most. Tipu fought his battles against the Maratha Empire, the East India Company and even his co-religionist the Nizam of Hyderabad all alone and lost almost all of them. He lost his life in the battle of Srirangpatna in 1799 fighting against overwhelming forces of the East India Company under command of Lord Wellesley. It may be relevant to mention that the same general in his later Avatar as Duke of Wellington had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte, King of France, in the decisive battle of Waterloo in 1815.
The possessive sense of guilt of Tipu that he had inherited a kingdom wrongfully usurped by his father was magnified by his paranoia of being similarly dispossessed by a scion of the same Hindu dynasty and Hindu subjects who did not like his style of governance smeared with blood of innocent men, women and children of territory that he had been invading in Coorg, Kerala, Karnatak rural areas and so on.
Kozhikode in Kerala had suffered most at the hands of Tipu in 1789. He boasted of having massacred many thousand Hindus there after his conquest. He wished to penetrate deep in the southern peninsular kingdom of Travancore but the brave fighters, Nair brigade and others halted his victorious march. Tipu’s master battle strategy was to catch enemy napping by his sudden swift surprise blitzkrieg. It paid him rich dividends elsewhere but not in Kodagu, former Coorg, where the freedom loving men and women waged guerilla war to keep the wily invader at bay. Tipu used the stratagem of friendship and lulled them to inaction before launching a ferocious attack killing, raping and looting the brave people of Kodagu. A large number of the 80,000 men and women of Kodagu captured by Tipu by treachery were forced to convert to Islam. Men were forcibly circumcised by Tipu’s officers as they had been doing elsewhere too.
“Tanjore abductions” will remain a permanent blot on both Hyder Ali and his son, Tipu. In 1780 – 1782, both father and son ravaged Tanjore destroying crop and cattle. Because of this massive policy of scorch earth used by the invaders, economy of Tanjore was reduced 90 percent and many poor people perished. The aftereffects of the massive burning and looting of the father-son duo was so crippling that Tanjore economy remained at sixes and sevens for over a century until boosted by the Maratha rulers. Tipu had abducted 12,000 children from Tanjore and adjoining area who never returned to their parental care. Did Tipu have a tendency to be a paedophile? More evidence needs to be collected to substantiate the charge, if any. Nevertheless the Tanjore loot and arson perpetrated by the father-son duo of Mysore caused stark deprivation and passed on into folklore as “ Hyderakalam”
Mangalore in North Karnataka suffered immensely at the hands of Tipu. Both the Hindus and Syrian Christians were subjected to harsh treatment by Tipu, his army and civil administrators. Temples, churches were razed to ground and Hindus and Christians taken prisoners to be taken to Srirangpatna on foot for intensive brutalization until they gave up the Faith of their forefathers. Unfortunately for Tipu that was not to be. Many devout Hindus and Syrian Christians preferred to die than change faith. Swadharme Nidhanam Shreyah, Pardharmo Bhayavah – was their motto and they stuck to it. It is interesting to note that the first part of the Sanskrit saying is the motto of the Madras Regiment till today.
Besides being an anti-Hindu, Tipu was out and out anti Christian too. He had destroyed 27 churches in and around Mangalore and took away many young petit girls with him to his capital Srirangpatna. Many of the captives remained enslaved until Tipu was killed in battle defending his capital in 1799.
In fairness to Tipu it would be relevant to mention that he bestowed both monetary and land grants to some temples in his kingdom. Tipu wrote a number of letters in Kanada to the Swamiji of Sringeri Math sympathizing with him and giving liberal grants to make good for the loss caused by the plunder of the Math by some delinquent marauders of the attacking Maratha force of the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. It was an aberration of Hindu soldiers of the Maratha legion looting a Hindu place of worship.
There was the temple of Shrirang Ji so close to the palace of Tipu in the Srirangpatna fort that he would hear both the temple bells and the Muezzin’s call for prayers from the mosque nearby. A ruler who destroyed some temples also gave grants and subsidy to other temples. Indeed a sign of the split personality of the ruler of Mysore, Tipu that he paid annual grants to 156 Hindu temples and yet destroyed some others elsewhere. He had presented a greenish LINGA to the temple located in the fort in his capital city.
Tipu had many Hindu advisors and ministers to help him carry on smooth administration and manage finances effectively. Prominent among them are Purnaya designated as Mir Asaf, Krishna Rao as Finance Minister and Sharmaiya Iyengar as a close confidant. However, his fortress commanders, governors and field army commanders were Muslims by and large.
Tipu was dead scared of the Hindu Maratha rulers of the Confedracy. He had faced the Maratha might in many a battle and lost heart to face them further. It is a recorded fact of history that Tipu had dispatched two emissaries to Pune, capital of Maratha Confederacy and of the Peshwa. He had sued for peace by ceding a lot of his territory to the Marathas thus extending the boundary of the Maratha Empire to the banks of the Tungbhadra.
Tipu used to play diplomacy. While he bought peace with the Marathas by ceding important fertile territory of his, he simultaneously corresponded with King Zaman Shah of Afghanistan to form an Islamic Confederacy in India. Of course, he had failed on this front too.
The Maratha army under captainship of Peshwa Madhavrao had regained most of his empire lost after the disaster of the third battle of Panipat in 1761. He had decisively defeated both Hyder Ali and Tipu in battles in 1764 and 1767. It is interesting to note that the Maratha Army had occupied the fort in the capital of Tipu in Srirangpatna. A defeated and forlorn Tipu had paid a large sum of Rupees 4.8 million to the Peshwa Madhavrao’s commanders as war damages besides agreeing to pay Rupees 1.2 million as annual tribute to the Marathas.
Whenever Tipu chose to raise the banner of revolt against the Maratha rule, the Peshwa would dispatch a large and effective military force to subdue him. Once Nana Phadnavis was the commanding general of such an expeditionary force and Tipu kowtowed to the Maratha General. Thus it may be seen that the Maratha Confederacy played a major role in keeping the split personality ruler of Mysore, Tipu under check effectively.
It would be relevant to quote historian C. Hayavadan Rao on Tipu’s religious fanaticism:
“ His religious fanaticism and excesses committed in the name of religion both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration.”
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By Brig. Chitranjan Sawant,VSM

“Jeevem Sharadah Shatam….Adinah Syam Sharadah Shatam”, that is a mantra of the Veda, the most ancient scripture in the library of man. It has been chanted for many thousand years by men and women in India and abroad who profess and practise the Vedic Dharma.
The prayer means that the faithful lives a life of one hundred years and is not dependent on others physically, mentally, financially and spiritually. The praying person draws from the society and repays to the society in one form or the other. The prayer, or Prarthana in Sanskrit-Hindi languages, is supplemented with Purusharth or Action by the individual. Everyone has to to do something or the other to live and it is called Karma in the Sanskrit language. The Vedic philosophy of life is based on Karma and Karmaphal or the result of action or inaction. What you sow, so must you reap. Do good to others and others will do good to you. This philosophy of life has a bearing on your longeivity or otherwise. Mind is the man; therefore, convince yourself that you have to live a healthy and happy life. Your resolve will show results in a positive way.
Aahar that is the food intake influences the Vichar that is the thought process and in totality shapes your personality that is Vyaohar. If the food and drink are so important , an individual should know its guiding principles. The finer details may be worked out accordingly.
HIT BHUK – MIT BHOOK – RIT BHOOK – these three are the guiding principles. In the same Sanskrit language order, it may be said – Eat what is beneficial to body;eat less than the full capacity of the stomach – eat food that has been bought with the money earned by the sweat of the brow honestly, without an element of dishonesty and cheating.
A piece of advice from a good dietician will encourage the faithful to eat fibre food, leafy vegetables, coarse grain flower and fruits. Avoiding red meat, stale food, saturated fats, hydrogenated oils etc promotes health in a human being.
Eat less than what your hunger demands – that has been the guiding principle for generations. In the normal course, if your body requires six slices of bread, a health conscious person will probably prefer to eat only four and a half slices of bread. The basic idea is that one must not overload one’s stomach with food, howsoever good it may be.
Generally speaking, not many men and women pay attention to the factor of buying foodstuff with honest money. The Vedic philosophy of life lays an emphasis on the factor of honesty in keeping you healthy and making a centenarian of you. The factor of honesty will keep an individual not only healthy physically and mentally but also contribute to spiritual wellness so essential for a disease-free centenarian.
Now you are all set to take off on your mission to live a healthy and happy life for a century and may be more. Cheers and bon voyage!

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By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM
Twenty years ago we Indians fought a war at Kargil against wily Pakistanis to evict them from our land that they had surreptitiously occupied during winter season contrary to an understanding between the two nations. We won the fiercely fought war from May to July 1999 and it was on 26th July that our Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee declared that the Kargil and adjoining areas were vacated by the intruders. Thereafter every 26 July is marked for celebration as Kargil Vijay Divas. We are observing the Twentieth anniversary of our victory over Pakistan this year.
Indeed it was a military, political and diplomatic victory of ours. Our three armed forces and the civil administration had whole heartedly united to achieve the great goal. Of course, different names were given by the three services. The Army called it Operation Vijay, the Air Force named it Operation Safed Sagar and the Navy called it Operation Talwar. The Navy’s role was rather limited in blocking the Karachi Port during the period of conflict.
Let us deal with the role of the Indian Air Force and then move on to the Indian Army for the biggest slice of the cake.
The Indian Air Force flew as many as 5,000 sorties over Kargil and the adjoining territory to bomb, rocket and strafe the Pakistan Army soldiers and their cohorts, terrorists and sundry infiltrators. Mig 21, Mig 29, and mainly Mirage 2000 were our main war horses. The daredevil pilots of Mirages flew at an elevation of 32,000 ft above sea level to carry on their assigned missions. They did precision target practice to destroy the enemy supply dumps and break their morale. Pakistan had no wherewithal to counter the fierce attack of our Mirage 2000 fighter-bomber jets. It put a stop to the supply line of the enemy of fighting munitions, weaponry, ration and sundry supplies. Their troops came to such a sorry state of affairs that they were forced to subsist on sugar rations alone. It broke their back and will to fight.
Operation Safed Sagar of our Air Force was indeed a turning point. It has been termed as a landmark in military aviation.
The Indian Army walks away with the cake and the credit for winning the Kargil war rightly goes to the wisdom and valour of officers and Jawans of the Indian Army. Our officers and men suffered serious casualties and privations but they fought on with high morale. Patriotism was the main motivating factor for them to kill the enemy and throw them out of our land.
The Indian journalists also played their important role. Both print and TV journalists risked their lives to do objective reporting from the frontline boosting the morale of our troops. Many a time the diehard journos incurred the ire of top brass of the military owing to objective and truthful reporting even to the point of criticizing the burra sahibs for their lack of imaginative planning , preparation and execution of plans. Some of journos were on the verge of being thrown out of the theatre of war but their objective coverage of battles fought and won earned them grateful thanks of junior officers and jawans. So much so that the troops shared their rations and helmets to provide sustenance and protection to scribes from enemy fire. Indeed a fine example of bon-homie it was.
Our Army made a break through with the capture of Tololing peak and the finale was occupation of the Tiger Hills by evicting the enemy. Of course, in these military operations our Army suffered many casualties. Some brave hearts made the supreme sacrifice but that encouraged their soldiers to battle on. Four of them were awarded Param Vir Chakra for displaying chivalry beyond the call of duty.
Caot Vikram Batra of 13, Jammu and Kashmir Rifles and Lt Manoj Pande of the first battalion, 11 Gorkha Rifles fulfilled their assigned task despite making the supreme sacrifice eventually. One major peak there is named after Capt Vikram Batra as Batra top and beckons all ranks to move on and on until the goal s achieved. Vikram had a sense of humour too. When his senior officers asked him to take some rest from his arduous mission, he jokingly replied “ Yeh Dil Mange More” and pressed on with the dangerous tasks.
The other two awardees of the Param Vir Chakra were sepoys or riflemen who lived on and on to fulfil the mission of killing the enemy and getting them out of our areas. Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav of the 18 Grenadiers is a brilliant example of a military hero. The other soldier of grit and determination who carried the day was Rifleman Sanjay Kumar of 13, JAK Rifles. Both are Junior Commissioned Officers now and march past the Rashtrapati in their jeeps on every Republic Day. Indeed they are perennial sources of inspiration to our new generations.
Indeed there are many officers and soldiers who were killed in action. They made the supreme sacrifice while on duty to protect our motherland from intruders, terrorists and undeclared enemies. Their names are engraved on a Memorial Wall at Dras and many hundreds of visitors pay their Shraddhanjali to them. The Kargil War Memorial at Dras is worth visiting. The place of pilgrimage is a perpetual source of inspiration to our youth. The Army organizes visits of students and kith and kin of those who are no more with us to enable them to pay their obeisance to the loved ones who made an exit from this world while doing their duty.
The Kargil War Memorial at Dras records names of martyrs. It epitomizes the valour and wisdom of officers and Jawans who cared for Bharat and paid little heed to their own safety. Indeed we are proud of them.
It would be befitting to record here that as many as 524 brave Indians in uniform find a place here on the Roll of Honour. The enemy had lost 700 plus men in their misadventure. We as good soldiers buried the enemy dead because their own countrymen refused to accept their mortal remains for the last rites. Of course under political pressure of Pakistan top brass they came down on their knees begging for the bodies of men who mattered.
Let there be no meaningless bloodshed. We do not go to war of our own volition but if it is thrust on us by wily enemies like Pakistan, we do not shirk our duty to our country. The good Indian men and women are always prepared to do the utmost for the motherland. Maryada Purshottam Shri Ram told his Lanka admiring compatriots that our Mother and Motherland take precedence over Heaven:
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